World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sociable lapwing

Article Id: WHEBN0000371124
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sociable lapwing  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of extinct and endangered species of Italy, Vanellinae, Animals described in 1771, List of endangered animals in India, Rainham Marshes Nature Reserve
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Sociable lapwing

Sociable lapwing
Sociable lapwing, Little Rann of Kutch, India
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Charadriidae
Genus: Vanellus
Species: V. gregarius
Binomial name
Vanellus gregarius
(Pallas, 1771)
Synonyms

Chaetusia gregaria (unjustified emendation)
Charadrius gregarius Pallas, 1771
Cheltusia gregaria (unjustified emendation)
Chettusia gregaria (Pallas, 1771)
Chetusia gregaria (unjustified emendation)
Choetusia gregaria (unjustified emendation)

The sociable lapwing or sociable plover (Vanellus gregarius) is a critically endangered wader in the lapwing family of birds.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Range and Breeding 2
  • Status 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Description

This attractive medium-sized lapwing has longish black legs and a short black bill. Summer adults have grey backs and breast, dark belly and white undertail. The head has a striking pattern, with a black crown and eyestripe, the latter being bordered above and below with white. The upper neck is ochre. Its longish black legs, white tail with a black terminal band and distinctive brown, white and grey wings make it almost unmistakable in flight. Length is 27–30 cm (11–12 in). The call is a harsh kereck.

Winter adults have a less distinct head pattern, slightly browner back and breast, and white belly. Young birds have a scaly back and only traces of the head pattern.

Egg - MHNT

Range and Breeding

This species breeds on open grassland in Russia and Kazakhstan. Three to four eggs are laid in a ground nest. These birds migrate south through Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Turkey, to key wintering sites in Israel, Syria, Eritrea, Sudan and north-west India. Birds winter occasionally in Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Oman. It is a very rare vagrant in western and northern Europe, where this gregarious bird is usually found with northern lapwings. It feeds in a similar way, picking insects and other small prey mainly from grassland or arable land.

Status

In 2004, BirdLife International categorised this bird as critically endangered, due to a very rapid population decline for poorly understood reasons. The main decline took place between 1960 and 1987, when the known population halved; it is some 20–25% of the 1930s population levels.[2] The current population was estimated to be between 600 and 1,800 mature birds in 2006,[2] but is being revised to the upward end of that scale, possibly more, following the discovery of the species' previously unknown main wintering grounds in Syria, where 1500 birds of all ages were encountered.[3] Additionally, in October 2007, a superflock of approximately 3,200 sociable lapwings were discovered in Turkey, according to Guven Eken, director of the Turkish Nature Association.[4] The current IUCN classification is CR A3bc—meaning that the population is expected to decline in the next decade or so by 80%, but based on theoretical considerations and the known habitat destruction rather than direct observation of the birds. Thus, the new discoveries might mean that as more data becomes available, the species could be downlisted to Endangered.

References

  1. ^  
  2. ^ a b "Vanellus gregarius"Species factsheet: Sociable Lapwing . BirdLife International. Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  3. ^ "Ornithologists “hit jackpot” on sightings of Critically Endangered bird". BirdLife International. 2 March 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. 
  4. ^ "Superflock of Endangered Birds Spotted in Turkey". National Public Radio. 20 October 2007. 
  • Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony. Shorebirds: An identification guide to the waders of the world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  

External links

  • Sociable lapwing photos at Oiseaux.net
  • Vanellus gregarius on Avibase
  • Sociable lapwing videos, photos, and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
  • Sociable lapwing photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
  • Vanellus gregariusInteractive range map of at IUCN Red List maps
  • Audio recordings of Sociable lapwing on Xeno-canto.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.