World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Southern African Development Community


Southern African Development Community

Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Communauté de développement d'Afrique australe
Comunidade de Desenvolvimento da África Austral
Flag Logo
Motto: "Towards a Common Future"
Anthem: SADC Anthem
Map of Africa indicating SADC (light green) and SADC+SACU (dark green) members.
Headquarters Gaborone, Botswana
Working languages
Type Intergovernmental
 -  Summit Chairperson Robert Mugabe
 -  Council Chairperson Simbarashe Mumbengegwi
 -  SADC PF Chairperson Abdool Ameen
 -  Tribunal President Ariranga Pillay
 -  Executive Secretary Stergomena Tax
Legislature SADC Parliamentary Forum
 -  as SADCC 1 April 1980 
 -  as SADC 17 August 1992 
 -  Total 9,882,959 km2
3,815,832 sq mi
 -  estimate 277 million
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total US$ 1,193 billion
 -  Per capita 4,309
Time zone (UTC+1 to +4)

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an Gaborone, Botswana. Its goal is to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 southern African states. It complements the role of the African Union.


  • Member states 1
  • History 2
  • SADC Protocols 3
  • SADC FTA 4
  • Challenges facing member countries 5
  • Aims 6
  • Structure and decision-making procedures 7
  • Leaders 8
    • Chairperson 8.1
    • Executive Secretaries 8.2
  • Comparison with other regional blocs 9
  • Timeline 10
    • 2007 10.1
    • 2008 10.2
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14

Member states

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the African Union

SADC has 15 member states:


The origins of SADC lie in the 1960s and 1970s, when the leaders of majority-ruled countries and national liberation movements coordinated their political, diplomatic and military struggles to bring an end to colonial and white-minority rule in southern Africa. The immediate forerunner of the political and security cooperation leg of today's SADC was the informal Frontline States (FLS) grouping. It was formed in 1980.

The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was the forerunner of the socio-economic cooperation leg of today's SADC. The adoption by nine majority-ruled southern African countries of the Lusaka declaration on 1 April 1980 paved the way for the formal establishment of SADCC in April 1980.

Membership of the FLS and SADCC sometimes differed.

SADCC was transformed into SADC on 17 August 1992, with the adoption by the founding members of SADCC and newly independent Namibia of the Windhoek declaration and treaty establishing SADC. The 1992 SADC provided for both socio-economic cooperation and political and security cooperation. In reality, the FLS was dissolved only in 1994, after South Africa's first democratic elections. Subsequent efforts to place political and security cooperation on a firm institutional footing under SADC's umbrella failed.

On 14 August 2001, the 1992 SADC treaty was amended. The amendment heralded the overhaul of the structures, policies and procedures of SADC, a process which is ongoing. One of the changes is that political and security cooperation is institutionalised in the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security (OPDS). One of the principal SADC bodies, it is subject to the oversight of the organisation's supreme body, the Summit, which comprises the heads of state or government.

The organisation holds its own

  • Official website
  • website covering trade issues in southern AfricaAgritrade

External links

  • Gabriël Oosthuizen, The Southern African Development Community: The organisation, its history, policies and prospects. Institute for Global Dialogue: Midrand, South Africa, 2006.
  • John McCormick, The European Union: Politics and Policies. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado, 2004.
  • Ramsamy, Prega 2003 Global partnership for Africa. Presentation at the human rights conference on global partnerships for Africa’s development, Gaborone: SADC

Further reading

  1. ^ "SADC Lifts Madagascar Suspension". SADC. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  2. ^ Organisation of SADC Games to cost a million dollars. Panapress (2003-05-11). Retrieved on 2014-09-15.
  3. ^ Valy, Bayano (June 2004). The first Under-20 Zone Six SADC Games. SADC Today, Vol.7 No.2 June 2004. Retrieved on 2014-09-15.
  4. ^ Southern African Development Community :: SADC Protocols. Retrieved on 2013-08-09.
  5. ^ "South African Development Community". Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  6. ^ "Southern African Development Community". Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ Deep Integration
  9. ^ Water Cooperation for a Secure World, Strategic Foresight Group,
  10. ^ Railways Africa – EXTENDING BEYOND CHIPATA
  11. ^ Confusion surrounds Mugabe's appearance at crisis meeting – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)


See also

  • 12 April "Confusion surrounds Mugabe's appearance at crisis meeting"[11]


  • 2 November – rail link from Chipata to Mpika proposed, providing shorter access to sea at Nacala.[10]



Comparison with other regional blocs

Country Name Term
 Zimbabwe Simba Makoni 1984–1994
 Namibia Kaire Mbuende 1994–2000
 Mauritius Prega Ramsamy 2000–2001 (Acting)
 Mozambique Thomas Salomao 2005–2013
 Tanzania Stergomena Tax Incumbent

Executive Secretaries

Country Chairperson Term
 Zambia Levy Mwanawasa 2007–2008
 South Africa Kgalema Motlanthe 2008–2009
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Joseph Kabila 2009-2010
 Namibia Hifikepunye Pohamba 2010–2011
 Angola Jose Eduardo dos Santos 2011–2012
 Mozambique Armando Guebuza 2012–2013
 Malawi Joyce Banda
Peter Mutharika
2013 – 31 May 2014
31 May - 17 August 2014
 Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe 2014-2015
 Botswana Ian Khama Chairman-elect


SADC headquarters building in Gaborone, Botswana.


Except for the Tribunal (based in Windhoek, Namibia), SNCs and Secretariat, decision-making is by consensus.

The organisation has six principal bodies:

Structure and decision-making procedures

SADC has recently received the top position in a global comparison of indicators of Water Cooperation prepared by international think-tank Strategic Foresight Group. SADC has scored 100 in the Water Cooperation Quotient,which examines active cooperation by riparian countries in the management of water resources using 10 parameters, including legal, political, technical, environmental, economic and institutional aspects. High performance in the Water Cooperation Quotient also means low risk of war between countries in the concerned river basin.[9]TO reduce economic dependence of SADC countries on South Africa .

In some areas, mere coordination of national activities and policies is the aim of cooperation. In others, the member states aim at more far-reaching forms of cooperation. For example, on foreign policy the main aim is coordination and cooperation, but in terms of trade and economic policy, a tighter coordination is in progress with a view to one day establishing a common market with common regulatory institutions.

SADC's aims are set out in different sources. The sources include the treaty establishing the organisation (SADC treaty); various protocols (other SADC treaties, such as the corruption protocol, the firearms protocol, the OPDS protocol, the health protocol and the education protocol); development and cooperation plans such as the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP) and the Strategic Indicative Plan of the Organ (SIPO); and declarations such as those on HIV and AIDS and food security. Not all of the pre-2001 treaties and plans have been harmonised with the more detailed and recent plans such as the RISDP and SIPO.


One significant challenge is that member states also participate in other regional economic cooperation schemes and regional political and security cooperation schemes that may compete with or undermine SADC's aims. For example, South Africa and Botswana both belong to the Southern Africa Customs Union, Zambia is a part of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and Tanzania is a member of the East African Community.

SADC countries face many social, development, economic, trade, education, health, diplomatic, defence, security and political challenges. Some of these challenges cannot be tackled effectively by individual members. Cattle diseases and organised-crime gangs know no boundaries. War in one country can suck in its neighbours and damage their economies. The sustainable development that trade could bring is threatened by the existence of different product standards and tariff regimes, weak customs infrastructure and bad roads. The socio-economic and political and security cooperation aims of SADC are equally wide-ranging, and intended to address the various common challenges. [8]

Challenges facing member countries

In addition to eliminating duplicative membership and the problem member states also participating in other regional economic cooperation schemes and regional political and security cooperation schemes that may compete with or undermine each other, the African Free Trade Zone further aims to strengthen the bloc's bargaining power when negotiating international deals.

The African Free Trade Zone effective has been more than a hundred years in the making--a trade zone spanning the whole African continent from Cape to Cairo and envisioned by Cecil Rhodes and other British imperialists in the 1890s. The only difference is that the African Free Trade Zone is the creation of independent African Countries. The idea is a free trade zone spanning the whole continent from the Cape to Cairo (Cape Town in the Republic of South Africa to Cairo in Egypt).

On Wednesday 22 October 2008, SADC joined with the African Free Trade Zone, consisting of 26 countries with a GDP of an estimated $624bn (£382.9bn). It is hoped the African Free Trade Zone agreement would ease access to markets within the zone and end problems arising from the fact that several of the member countries belong to multiple groups.[7]

The SADC Free Trade Area was initiated in 2000; its original members were the SACU countries (South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland). Next to join were Mauritius, Zimbabwe, and Madagascar. In 2008 Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia joined, bringing the total number of SADC FTA members to 12. Angola, DR Congo and Seychelles are not yet participating.


  • Protocol on Gender and Development - Member states are urged to accelerate implementation efforts towards the achievements of concrete and transformative changes in the lives of women and girls in our region.H.E. President Mutharika also expressed concern on the escalating incidents of gender based violence in the region, especially those perpetrated against women and girls, and used this occasion to sign a commitment to end child marriages, as part of the AU campaign to end Child Marriages in Africa.[6]
  • Protocol on Energy (1996) - Intended to promote harmonious development of national energy policies. These development strategies set out tangible objectives for SADC and its Member States for infrastructure development in energy and its subsectors of woodfuel, petroleum and natural gas, electricity, goal, renewable energy, and energy efficiency and conservation. [5]

SADC has 27 legally binding protocols dealing with issues such as Defence, Development, Illicit Drug Trade, Free Trade and Movement of People.[4]

SADC Protocols

[3].basketball and boxing, netball, football, athletics The first event in 2004 in Maputo resulted in over 1000 youths under-20 from 10 countries taking part in a sports programme including [2]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.