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Spring steel

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Title: Spring steel  
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Subject: Steels, Cage nut, Treehouse attachment bolt, Binder clip, Constant-force spring
Collection: Steels
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Spring steel

Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels[1] used widely in the manufacture of springs, prominently in Automotive and Industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally low-alloy, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.


Many grades of steel can be hardened and tempered to suit application as a spring, however some steels exhibit more desirable characteristics for spring applications.

Common Spring steel grades
SAE grade (ASTM grade) Composition Yield strength Typical hardness [HRC] Maximum hardness [HRC] Comments
1074/1075[2] 0.70–0.80% C, 0.50–0.80% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S[3] 62-78 ksi (430-530 MPa)[4] 44–50[5] 50 Scaleless blue steel
1080 (A228) 0.7-1.0% C, 0.2-0.6% Mn, 0.1-0.3% Si[6] Piano wire, Music wire
1095 (A684)[2] 0.90–1.03% C, 0.30–0.50% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S[7] 60–75 ksi (413–517 MPa) Annealed 48–51[5] 59 Blue spring steel
5160 (A689)[8] 0.55–0.65% C, 0.75–1.00% Mn, 0.70–0.90% Cr[9] 97 ksi (669 MPa) 63 Chrome-silicon spring steel; fatigue-resistant
50CrV4 (EN 10277) 0.47-0.55% C, max. 1.10% Mn, 0.90-1.20% Cr, 0.10-0.20% V, max. 0.40% Si 1200 MPa Old British "735 steel"
9255 0.50–0.60% C, 0.70–0.95% Mn, 1.80–2.20% Si[9]
301 Spring-tempered stainless steel (A666)[10] 0.08–0.15% C, max. 2.00% Mn, 16.00–18.00% Cr, 6.00–8.00% Ni[9] 147 ksi (1014 MPa) 42


  • Applications include piano wire such as ASTM A228 (0.80–0.95% carbon), which is also known as music wire,[11] spring clamps, antennas, springs, and vehicle coil springs, leaf springs, and s-tines.
  • Spring steel is also commonly used in the manufacture of metal swords used for stage combat due to its resistance to snapping or shattering.
  • Spring steel is one of the most popular materials used in the fabrication of lockpicks due to its pliability and resilience.
  • Tubular spring steel is used in some of the smaller aircraft's landing gear due to its ability to absorb the shock from landing & also acts like damping.
  • It is also commonly used in the making of knives, especially for the Nepalese kukri.

See also



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