 Conversion data used by Module:Convert which uses mw.loadData() for  readonly access to this module so that it is loaded only once per page.  See if copying to another wiki.   These data tables follow:  all_units all properties for a unit, including default output  default_exceptions exceptions for default output ('kg' and 'g' have different defaults)  link_exceptions exceptions for links ('kg' and 'g' have different links)   These tables are generated by a script which reads the wikitext of a page that  documents the required properties of each unit; see Module:Convert/doc.
 Do not change the data in this table because it is created by running   a script that reads the wikitext from a wiki page (see note above). 
local all_units = {
["Gy"] = {
_name1 = "gray",
_symbol = "Gy",
utype = "absorbed radiation dose",
scale = 1,
prefixes = 1,
default = "rad",
link = "Gray (unit)",
},
["rad"] = {
_name1 = "rad",
_symbol = "rad",
utype = "absorbed radiation dose",
scale = 0.01,
prefixes = 1,
default = "Gy",
link = "Rad (unit)",
},
["cm/s2"] = {
name1 = "centimetre per second squared",
name1_us = "centimeter per second squared",
name2 = "centimetres per second squared",
name2_us = "centimeters per second squared",
symbol = "cm/s^{2}",
utype = "acceleration",
scale = 0.01,
default = "ft/s2",
link = "Gal (unit)",
},
["ft/s2"] = {
name1 = "foot per second squared",
name2 = "feet per second squared",
symbol = "ft/s^{2}",
utype = "acceleration",
scale = 0.3048,
default = "m/s2",
},
["g0"] = {
name1 = "standard gravity",
name2 = "standard gravities",
symbol = "g_{0}",
utype = "acceleration",
scale = 9.80665,
default = "m/s2",
},
["km/hs"] = {
name1 = "kilometre per hour per second",
name1_us = "kilometer per hour per second",
name2 = "kilometres per hour per second",
name2_us = "kilometers per hour per second",
symbol = "km/(h·s)",
utype = "acceleration",
scale = 0.27777777777777779,
default = "mph/s",
link = "Acceleration",
},
["km/s2"] = {
name1 = "kilometre per second squared",
name1_us = "kilometer per second squared",
name2 = "kilometres per second squared",
name2_us = "kilometers per second squared",
symbol = "km/s^{2}",
utype = "acceleration",
scale = 1000,
default = "mph/s",
link = "Acceleration",
},
["m/s2"] = {
name1 = "metre per second squared",
name1_us = "meter per second squared",
name2 = "metres per second squared",
name2_us = "meters per second squared",
symbol = "m/s^{2}",
utype = "acceleration",
scale = 1,
default = "ft/s2",
},
["mph/s"] = {
name1 = "mile per hour per second",
name2 = "miles per hour per second",
symbol = "mph/s",
utype = "acceleration",
scale = 0.44704,
default = "km/hs",
link = "Acceleration",
},
["km/h/s"] = {
target = "km/hs",
},
["standard gravity"] = {
target = "g0",
},
["1000sqft"] = {
name1 = "thousand square feet",
name2 = "thousand square feet",
symbol = "1000 sq ft",
utype = "area",
scale = 92.90304,
default = "m2",
link = "Square foot",
},
["a"] = {
_name1 = "are",
_symbol = "a",
utype = "area",
scale = 100,
prefixes = 1,
default = "sqft",
link = "Hectare#Are",
},
["acre"] = {
symbol = "acre",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 4046.8564224,
default = "ha",
},
["acresing"] = {
target = "acre",
},
["arpent"] = {
symbol = "arpent",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 3418.89,
default = "ha",
},
["cda"] = {
name1 = "cuerda",
symbol = "cda",
utype = "area",
scale = 3930.395625,
default = "acre ha",
},
["Cypriot donum"] = {
symbol = "donum",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1337.803776,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["Cypriot dunam"] = {
symbol = "dunam",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1337.803776,
default = "km2 sqmi",
},
["Cypriot dunum"] = {
symbol = "dunum",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1337.803776,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["Cypriot dönüm"] = {
symbol = "dönüm",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1337.803776,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["daa"] = {
name1 = "decare",
symbol = "daa",
utype = "area",
scale = 1000,
default = "km2 sqmi",
},
["donum"] = {
symbol = "donum",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1000,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["dunam"] = {
symbol = "dunam",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1000,
default = "km2 sqmi",
},
["dunum"] = {
symbol = "dunum",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1000,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["dönüm"] = {
symbol = "dönüm",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1000,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["ha"] = {
name1 = "hectare",
symbol = "ha",
utype = "area",
scale = 10000,
default = "acre",
},
["hectare"] = {
name1 = "hectare",
symbol = "ha",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 10000,
default = "acre",
},
["Iraqi donum"] = {
symbol = "donum",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 2500,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["Iraqi dunam"] = {
symbol = "dunam",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 2500,
default = "km2 sqmi",
},
["Iraqi dunum"] = {
symbol = "dunum",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 2500,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["Iraqi dönüm"] = {
symbol = "dönüm",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 2500,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["Irish acre"] = {
name1 = "Irish acre",
symbol = "Irish acres",
utype = "area",
scale = 6555.2385024,
default = "ha",
link = "Acre (Irish)",
},
["m2"] = {
_name1 = "square metre",
_name1_us= "square meter",
_symbol = "m^{2}",
prefix_position= 8,
utype = "area",
scale = 1,
prefixes = 2,
default = "sqft",
link = "Square metre",
},
["old donum"] = {
symbol = "donum",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 919.3,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["old dunam"] = {
symbol = "dunam",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 919.3,
default = "km2 sqmi",
},
["old dunum"] = {
symbol = "dunum",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 919.3,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["old dönüm"] = {
symbol = "dönüm",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 919.3,
default = "km2 sqmi",
link = "Dunam",
},
["pondemaat"] = {
name1 = "pondemaat",
name2 = "pondemaat",
symbol = "pond",
utype = "area",
scale = 3674.363358816,
default = "m2",
link = ":nl:pondemaat",
},
["pyeong"] = {
name2 = "pyeong",
symbol = "pyeong",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 3.3057851239669422,
default = "m2",
},
["rood"] = {
symbol = "rood",
usename = 1,
utype = "area",
scale = 1011.7141056,
default = "sqft sqm",
subdivs = { ["sqperch"] = { 40, default = "m2" } },
link = "Rood (unit)",
},
["sqfoot"] = {
name1 = "square foot",
name2 = "square foot",
symbol = "sq ft",
utype = "area",
scale = 0.09290304,
default = "m2",
},
["sqft"] = {
name1 = "square foot",
name2 = "square feet",
symbol = "sq ft",
utype = "area",
scale = 0.09290304,
default = "m2",
Stephen Wolfram (born 29 August 1959) is a computer scientist, entrepreneur and former physicist^{[7]}^{[8]} known for his contributions to theoretical physics; his pioneering work on knowledgebased programming; as the CEO of Wolfram Research and chief designer of Mathematica and the Wolfram Alpha answer engine; and as the author of the book A New Kind of Science.^{[2]}^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]}^{[12]}^{[13]}^{[14]}
Contents

Background 1

Education 2

Career 3

Research 4

Unpublished works 4.1

4.2 Particle physics

Symbolic Manipulation Program 4.3

Complex systems and cellular automata 4.4

Mathematica 4.5

A New Kind of Science 4.6

Computational knowledge engine 4.7

Wolfram Language 4.8

References 5

External links 6
Background
Wolfram's parents were Jewish refugees who emigrated from Germany to England in the 1930s.^{[5]}^{[15]} Wolfram's father Hugo was a textile manufacturer and novelist (Into a Neutral Country) and his mother Sybil was a professor of philosophy at the University of Oxford.^{[16]} He has a younger brother, Conrad Wolfram.^{[17]} Wolfram is married to a mathematician and has four children.^{[18]}
Education
Wolfram was educated at Eton College, but left prematurely in 1976. He entered St John's College, Oxford at age 17 but found lectures "awful",^{[16]} and left in 1978 without graduating.^{[19]} He received a PhD^{[3]} in particle physics from the California Institute of Technology at age 20.^{[4]} Wolfram's thesis committee included Richard Feynman, Peter Goldreich and Steven Frautschi^{[4]} while the thesis research was supervised by Geoffrey C. Fox and Hugh David Politzer.^{[3]}
Career
Following his PhD, Wolfram joined the faculty at Caltech and received one of the first MacArthur Fellowships in 1981, at age 21.^{[19]}
Wolfram presented a talk at the TED conference in 2010,^{[20]}^{[21]}^{[22]} and he was named Speaker of the Event for his 2012 talk at SXSW.^{[23]} In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.^{[24]}
Research
According to Google Scholar, Stephen Wolfram is cited by over 30,000 publications (up to April 2012)^{[25]} and has an hindex of 58. He has an Erdős number of 2.
Unpublished works
At the age of 12, he wrote a dictionary on physics,^{[26]} and soon by ages 13 and 14 he wrote three books on particle physics.^{[27]}^{[28]}^{[29]} They were not published.
Particle physics
By the time he was 15 he began to research in applied quantum field theory and particle physics and publish his first scientific papers. Topics included matter creation and annihilation, the fundamental interactions, elementary particles and their currents, hadronic and leptonic physics, and the parton model, published in professional peerreviewed scientific journals including Nuclear Physics B, Australian Journal of Physics, Nuovo Cimento, and Physical Review D.^{[30]} Working independently, Wolfram published a widely cited paper on heavy quark production at age 18^{[5]} and nine other papers,^{[16]} and continued to research and publish on particle physics into his early twenties. Wolfram's work with Geoffrey C Fox on the theory of the strong interaction is still used today in experimental particle physics.^{[31]}
Symbolic Manipulation Program
Wolfram led the development of the computer algebra system SMP (Symbolic Manipulation Program) in the Caltech physics department during 1979–1981. A dispute with the administration over the intellectual property rights regarding SMP—patents, copyright, and faculty involvement in commercial ventures—eventually caused him to resign from Caltech.^{[32]} SMP was further developed and marketed commercially by Inference Corp. of Los Angeles during 1983–1988.
Complex systems and cellular automata
In 1983, Wolfram left for the School of Natural Sciences of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he conducted research into cellular automata,^{[33]}^{[34]}^{[35]}^{[36]}^{[37]} mainly with computer simulations. He produced a series of papers systematically investigating the class of elementary cellular automata, conceiving the Wolfram code, a naming system for onedimensional cellular automata, and a classification scheme for the complexity of their behaviour. He conjectured that the Rule 110 cellular automaton might be Turing complete. In the middle 1980s Wolfram worked on simulations of physical processes (such as turbulent fluid flow) with cellular automata on the Connection Machine alongside Richard Feynman^{[38]} and helped ignite the field of complex systems founding the first institute devoted to this subject, The Center for Complex Systems Research (CCSR) at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign^{[39]} and the journal Complex Systems in 1987.^{[39]}
Mathematica
In 1986 Wolfram left the Institute for Advanced Study for the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign where he founded their Center for Complex Systems Research and started to develop the computer algebra system Mathematica, which was first released in 1988, when he left academia. In 1987 he cofounded a company called Wolfram Research which continues to develop and market the program.^{[5]}
A New Kind of Science
From 1992 to 2002, he worked on his controversial book A New Kind of Science,^{[5]}^{[40]} which presents an empirical study of very simple computational systems. Additionally, it argues that for fundamental reasons these types of systems, rather than traditional mathematics, are needed to model and understand complexity in nature. Wolfram's conclusion is that the universe is digital in its nature, and runs on fundamental laws which can be described as simple programs. He predicts that a realisation of this within the scientific communities will have a major and revolutionary influence on physics, chemistry and biology and the majority of the scientific areas in general, which is the reason for the book's title.
Since the release of the book in 2002, Wolfram has split his time between developing Mathematica and encouraging people to get involved with the subject matter of A New Kind of Science by giving talks, holding conferences, and starting a summer school devoted to the topic.^{[21]}
Computational knowledge engine
In March 2009, Wolfram announced WolframAlpha, an answer engine with a new approach to knowledge extraction and an easytouse interface, launched in May 2009^{[41]}^{[42]} and a Pro version launched on February 2012.^{[43]} The engine is based on natural language processing and a large library of algorithms, and answers queries using the approach described in A New Kind of Science. The application programming interface (API) allows other applications to extend and enhance Alpha.^{[44]} WolframAlpha is one of the answer engines behind Microsoft's Bing^{[45]} and Apple's Siri (along with Google and Yelp!) answering factual questions.^{[46]}
Wolfram Language
In June 2014, Wolfram officially announced the Wolfram Language as a new general multiparadigm programming language.^{[47]} The documentation for the language was prereleased in October 2013 to coincide with the bundling of Mathematica and the Wolfram Language on every Raspberry Pi computer. While the Wolfram Language has existed for over 25 years as the primary programming language used in Mathematica, it was not officially named until 2014.^{[48]}
References

^ Wolfram, S. (2013). "Proceedings of the 38th international symposium on International symposium on symbolic and algebraic computation  ISSAC '13". p. 7.

^ ^{a} ^{b} Stephen Wolfram from the Scopus bibliographic database.

^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Stephen Wolfram at the Mathematics Genealogy Project

^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Wolfram, Stephen (1980). Some Topics in Theoretical HighEnergy Physics (PhD thesis). California Institute of Technology.

^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} ^{e} Giles, J. (2002). "Stephen Wolfram: What kind of science is this?". Nature 417 (6886): 216–218.

^ Wolfram, S. (2013). "Remembering Richard Crandall (19472012)". ACM Communications in Computer Algebra 47: 14.

^ "Stephen Wolfram". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved 15 May 2012.

^ "'"Stephen Wolfram: 'I am an information pack rat. New Scientist. Retrieved 19 April 2014.

^ List of publications from the DBLP Bibliography Server

^ List of publications from Microsoft Academic Search

^ Stephen Wolfram from the ACM Portal

^ Appearances on CSPAN

^ Works by or about Stephen Wolfram in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

^ Stephen Wolfram interviewed on the TV show Triangulation on the TWiT.tv network

^ "Jüdische Schriftsteller in Westfalen: Hogarth Wolfram".

^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Levy, Steven (10.06). "The Man Who Cracked The Code to Everything ...". Wired. Retrieved 20 March 2011.

^ "Stephen Wolfram". nndb.com. Retrieved 11 May 2009.

^ "Stephen Wolfram". Sunday Profile. 20090531. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

^ ^{a} ^{b} Arndt, Michael (17 May 2002). "Stephen Wolfram's Simple Science". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 20 March 2011.

^ Levy, Steven (12 February 2010). "TED 2010: How to Ace a TED Talk". WIRED. Retrieved 16 May 2012

^ ^{a} ^{b} Stephen Wolfram at TED

^ "Stephen Wolfram: Computing a theory of everything". TED. February 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2012

^ "SXSW Award Winners 2012". Retrieved 16 May 2012.

^ List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, retrieved 1 September 2013.

^ "Stephen Wolfram publications on Google Scholar". Retrieved 7 April 2012.

^ S. Wolfram (1972). Concise Directory of Physics.

^ S. Wolfram (1973). The Physics of Subatomic Particles.

^ S. Wolfram (1974). Introduction to the Weak Interaction 1.

^ S. Wolfram (1974). Introduction to the Weak Interaction 2.

^ Stephen Wolfram: Articles on Particle Physics

^ Fox, G.; Wolfram, S. (1978). "Observables for the Analysis of Event Shapes in e^{+}e^{} Annihilation and Other Processes". Physical Review Letters 41 (23): 1581.

^ Kolata, G. (1983). "Caltech Torn by Dispute over Software". Science 220 (4600): 932–934.

^ Wolfram, S. (1984). "Computation theory of cellular automata". Communications in Mathematical Physics 96: 15–57.

^ Martin, O.; Odlyzko, A. M.; Wolfram, S. (1984). "Algebraic properties of cellular automata". Communications in Mathematical Physics 93 (2): 219.

^ Wolfram, S. (1986). "Cellular automaton fluids 1: Basic theory". Journal of Statistical Physics 45 (3–4): 471–526.

^ Wolfram, S. (1984). "Cellular automata as models of complexity". Nature 311 (5985): 419–424.

^ Wolfram, S. (1983). "Statistical mechanics of cellular automata". Reviews of Modern Physics 55 (3): 601.

^ W. Daniel Hillis (February 1989). "Richard Feynman and The Connection Machine". Physics Today. Retrieved 3 November 2006.

^ ^{a} ^{b} "The Man Who Cracked The Code to Everything". Wired. Retrieved 7 April 2012.

^ ISBN 1579550088

^ Wolfram, Stephen (5 March 2009). "WolframAlpha Is Coming!". Wolfram blog. Retrieved 9 March 2009.

^ "WolframAlpha". Retrieved 9 March 2009.

^ "Announcing WolframAlpha Pro". WolframAlpha blog. Retrieved 7 April 2012.

^ Johnson, Bobbie (9 March 2009). "'"British search engine 'could rival Google.

^ "Answering your questions with Bing and Wolfram Alpha". "Microsoft's Bing blog". Retrieved 7 April 2012.

^ "iPhone features".

^ Wolfram Language reference page Retrieved on 14 May 2014.

^ Slate's article Stephen Wolfram's New Programming Language: He Can Make The World Computable, March 6, 2014. Retrieved on 14 May 2014.
External links

Stephen Wolfram interviewed on the TV show Triangulation on the TWiT.tv network

Cosma Shalizi. "The Bactra Review: Occasional and eclectic book reviews by Cosma Shalizi "A New Kind of Science" by Stephen Wolfram". University of Michigan. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
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