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Tarnovo

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Tarnovo

For the village in Moldova, see Tîrnova, Donduşeni.

Veliko Tarnovo
Велико Търново

Collage of views of Veliko Tarnovo, Top:View of Tsarevets Fortress, Middle left:Saint Peter and Paul Church, Middle right:Saint Demetrius church, Bottom upper left:Boris Denev Art Gallery, Bottom lower left:Saint Forty Martyrs bChurch, Bottom right:The monument of the Assens

Coat of arms
Veliko Tarnovo
Veliko Tarnovo
Location of Veliko Tarnovo

Coordinates: 43°05′N 25°39′E / 43.083°N 25.650°E / 43.083; 25.650Coordinates: 43°05′N 25°39′E / 43.083°N 25.650°E / 43.083; 25.650

Country Bulgaria
Province
(Oblast)
Veliko Tarnovo
Government
 • Mayor Daniel Panov
Area
 • Total 30.379 km2 (11.729 sq mi)
Elevation 220 m (720 ft)
Population (Census February 2011).[1] 200,292 Metro
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 5000
Area code 062
Website Official website

Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново) Bulgarian pronunciation: [vɛˈliko ˈtɤ̞rnovo] is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.

Often referred to as the "City of the Tsars", Veliko Tarnovo is located on the Yantra River and is famous as the historical capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire, attracting many tourists with its unique architecture. The old part of the city is situated on the three hills Tsarevets, Trapezitsa, and Sveta Gora rising amidst the meanders of the Yantra. On Tsarevets are the palaces of the Bulgarian emperors and the Patriarchate, the Patriarchal Cathedral, as well as a number of administrative and residential edifices surrounded by thick walls. Trapezitsa is known for its many churches and as the former main residence of the nobility. In the Middle Ages, the city was among the main European centres of culture and gave its name to the architecture of the Tarnovo Artistic School, painting of the Tarnovo Artistic School and literature. Veliko Tarnovo is an important administrative, economic, educational, and cultural centre of Northern Bulgaria.

Etymology

The most widespread theory for the name's origin claims, that the original names Tarnovgrad and Tarnovo come from the Old Bulgarian тръневъ (tranev) or тръновъ (tranov), meaning "thorny". The suffix "grad" means "city" in Bulgarian and in many Slavic languages. In 1965, in addition to the original name was added the word велико (veliko), meaning "great", in honour of the city as an old capital of Bulgaria. But Tarnovo remains the most used name by the citizens.

Climate

Veliko Tarnovo has a Temperate climate: cold winters with much snow and hot summers. The average minimum temperature in the coldest month - January is about−7 °C (19 °F), while the average maximum in August, the hottest months - 30 °C (86 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 41.1 °C (106 °F), while the lowest - −28.1 °C (−19 °F), though according to unofficial data the temperature had dropped to −38 °C (−36 °F).

Climate data for Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria (1961-1990, records 1926-1970)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
23.3
(73.9)
29.7
(85.5)
32.2
(90)
36.1
(97)
38.4
(101.1)
40
(104)
41.1
(106)
40.6
(105.1)
33.8
(92.8)
29.8
(85.6)
21.8
(71.2)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
5.7
(42.3)
11.4
(52.5)
18.6
(65.5)
23.4
(74.1)
27
(81)
29.6
(85.3)
29.8
(85.6)
26
(79)
19.4
(66.9)
12.4
(54.3)
5.1
(41.2)
17.5
(63.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
0.7
(33.3)
5.5
(41.9)
12.1
(53.8)
17.2
(63)
20.7
(69.3)
22.9
(73.2)
22.4
(72.3)
18.1
(64.6)
12.4
(54.3)
6.9
(44.4)
0.9
(33.6)
11.5
(52.7)
Average low °C (°F) −6.8
(19.8)
−4.3
(24.3)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.3
(41.5)
10
(50)
13.5
(56.3)
15.2
(59.4)
14.5
(58.1)
10.7
(51.3)
6.1
(43)
2.4
(36.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
5.3
(41.5)
Record low °C (°F) −20.8
(−5.4)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−16.7
(1.9)
−2.5
(27.5)
2
(36)
5,3 9.8
(49.6)
9.2
(48.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
−9.8
(14.4)
−18.4
(−1.1)
−28.1
(−18.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 48
(1.89)
44
(1.73)
43
(1.69)
63
(2.48)
88
(3.46)
86
(3.39)
65
(2.56)
56
(2.2)
41
(1.61)
45
(1.77)
51
(2.01)
50
(1.97)
680
(26.77)
Source: Stringmeteo.com[2]

History

Prehistory and antiquity


Veliko Tarnovo is one of the oldest settlements in Bulgaria, having a history of more than five millennia, as the first traces of human presence dating from the 3rd millennium BC are on Trapezitsa Hill.[3]

Medieval Bulgarian rule

Veliko Tarnovo, originally Tarnovgrad (Търновград), grew quickly to become the strongest Bulgarian fortification of the Middle Ages between the 12th and 14th century and the most important political, economic, cultural and religious centre of the empire. The city was described by Bulgarian cleric Gregory Tsamblak in the 14th century as "a very large city, handsome and surrounded by walls with 12,000 to 15,000 inhabitants".[4]

In the 14th century as the Byzantine Empire weakened, Tarnovo claimed to be the Third Rome based on its preeminent cultural influence in Eastern Europe.

As the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire, Tarnovo was a quasi-cosmopolitan city, with many foreign merchants and envoys. It is known that Tarnovo had Armenian, Jewish and Roman Catholic ("Frankish") merchant quarters besides a dominant Bulgarian population. The discovery of three Gothic statuette heads indicates there may have also been a Catholic church.[5]

Ottoman rule



The city flourished and grew for 200 years. Тhe political upsurge and spiritual development were discontinued on 17 July 1393. After vigorous resistance to a three-month siege, Veliko Tarnovo was seized and the whole Bulgarian Empire was destroyed by the Ottoman Empire. Many medieval Bulgarian towns and villages, monasteries and churches, were burnt to ashes.

Veliko Tarnovo, during the Ottoman rule known as Tırnova, was the location of two uprisings against Ottoman rule, in 1598 (the First Tarnovo Uprising) and 1686 (the Second Tarnovo Uprising), both of which failed to liberate Bulgaria. Tarnovo was a district (sanjak) centre at first in Rumelia Eyalet, after that in Silistria Eyalet and finally in Danube Vilayet before becoming part of the Principality of Bulgaria.

Tarnovgrad, along with the rest of present-day Bulgaria, remained under Ottoman rule until the 19th century, when national identity and culture reasserted themselves as a strengthening resistance movement. The idea of the establishment of an independent Bulgarian church and nation motivated the 1875 and 1876 uprisings in town. On 23 April 1876, the April Uprising marked the beginning of the end of the Ottoman occupation. It was soon followed by the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).

Third Bulgaria

On 7 July 1877, Russian general Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko liberated Veliko Tarnovo, ending the 480-year-rule of the Ottoman Empire. In 1878, the Treaty of Berlin created a Principality of Bulgaria between the Danube and the Stara Planina range, with its seat at the old Bulgarian capital of Veliko Tarnovo.

On 17 April 1879, the first National Assembly convened in Veliko Turnovo to ratify the state's first constitution, known as the Tarnovo Constitution, the key result of which resulted in the transfer of Parliament from Tarnovgrad to Sofia, which today remains the Bulgarian capital.

In deference to the city's past, Tsar Ferdinand Saxe-Coburg Gotha chose the St Forty Martyrs Church in Veliko Tarnovo as the place to declare the complete independence of Bulgaria on 5 October 1908.

In 1965, the city, then officially known as Tarnovo, was renamed to Veliko Tarnovo (Great Tarnovo) to commemorate its rich history and importance.

Veliko Tarnovo today

Today the town is undergoing extensive construction, including reconstruction of the old city and some of the buildings on historical streets. The two universities, the American University and Agriculture University give the town a youthful and educated feel. The city also hosts many culture activities such as music from Bulgarian and foreign singers, theater, and festivals. Today the town is also one of Bulgaria's biggest manufacturers of sweets.

Population

According to Census 2011, Veliko Tarnovo has a population of 68,783 inhabitants as of February 2011, while the Veliko Tarnovo Municipality with the villages has 88,670.[1] The number of the residents of the city reached its peak in the period 1986–1991 when exceeded 70,000.[6] The following table presents the change of the population after 1887. Template:Table BG town population

Ethnic, linguistic and religious composition

According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows:[7][8]

  • Bulgarians: 59,649 (95.5%)
  • Turks: 2,225 (3.6%)
  • Gypsies: 123 (0.2%)
  • Others: 258 (0.4%)
  • Indefinable: 198 (0.3%)
  • Romanians: 2
    • Undeclared: 6,330 (9.2%)

Total: 100,783

Neighborhoods in Veliko Tarnvov

  • "Buzludja" (Bulgarian"Бузлуджа") - 31 500 people
  • "Kolio Ficheto"("Triagalnika")(on Bulgarian "Кольо Фичето"("Триъгълника")) - 19 000 people
  • "Shirok centar" (Bulgarian"Широк център") - 18 000 people
  • "Center" (Bulgarian"Център") - 10 000 people
  • "Akacia" (Bulgarian"Акация") - 8 000 people
  • "Cholakovci" (Bulgarian"Чолаковци") - 4 200 people
  • "Sveta gora" (Bulgarian"Света гора") - 3 140 people
  • "Varusha" (Bulgarian"Варуша") - 5 100 people
  • "Asenov" (Bulgarian"Асенов") - 4 400 people
  • "Veliko Tarnovo hills" - in building

The ethnic composition of Veliko Tarnovo Municipality is 100570 Bulgarians, 3681 Turks and 595 Gypsies among others.

Tourism

In 2012, around 250 000 people from Bulgaria and foreign countries visited the old capital of Bulgaria. Maybe the biggest landmark is the hill Charevec. This hill and the castle on it was the most important place for the Second Bulgarian empire. Many historical events happened in the town and its surroundings. The hill Trapezitza is also of significance. In 2009, restoration of the hill began, where once the Boyars lived. The old market Samovodskata charshiya shows traditions of crafts. The old streets, the squares, the old houses show the rich history of the Second Bulgarian empire.

Monuments

  • Monument of Asenevci
  • Monument of Mother Bulgaria
  • Monument of Independence
  • Monument of Stefan Stambolov

Economy

Machines

In 1967, a factory for electronics, engines, and components for cranes was built.[citation needed]

Electronics

In 1966, a factory for televisions and radios was built.[citation needed]
In 1969, a factory for memory electronics and electronic components was built.[citation needed]

Plastic

Veliko Tarnovo had factories for plastic bags and other wares.[citation needed]

Textiles

The biggest factory in the town was "Mavrikov," and today has some small factories for clothes and other wares.[citation needed]

Food

Prestige 96 is one of the biggest company for sweets in Bulgaria based in Veliko Tarnovo.Another factories like Karmela 2000 are smaller but with a good reputation.

Twin cities

Veliko Tarnovo is [1]

Honour

Tarnovo Ice Piedmont on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Veliko Tarnovo.

Sport

Ivailo Stadium is the biggest soccer stadium in the town. The stadium is the home of all sports teams in Veliko Tarnovo which are called Etar. The ground was broken for the stadium in 1957 and it was completed in 1958. In the 21st century it was reconstructed and now had seats for 18,000. Veliko Tarnovo has teams in soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics and other sports.

The Vasil Levski Palace of Culture and Sports is the biggest sports hall in Veliko Tarnovo. The hall was completed on 15 November 1985. The hall has 1600 seats and courts for basketball and volleyball.

References

External links

  • DMOZ
  • Official website of Veliko Tarnovo
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