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Thiocyanic acid

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Title: Thiocyanic acid  
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Subject: Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen peroxide, Aminoacetonitrile
Collection: Mineral Acids, Thiocyanates
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Thiocyanic acid

Thiocyanic acid[1]
Skeletal formula of thiocyanic acid
Skeletal formula of thiocyanic acid with the explicit hydrogen added
Spacefill model of thiocyanic acid
Names
IUPAC name
Nitridosulfanidocarbon[2]
Other names
  • Hydrogen thiocyanate
  • Sulfocyanic acid
  • Sulfocyanide
Identifiers
 Y
3DMet
ChEBI  Y
ChEMBL  Y
ChemSpider  Y
EC number 207-337-4
25178
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG  N
MeSH
PubChem
Properties
CHNS
Molar mass 59.09 g·mol−1
Appearance colorless, oily liquid
Odor pungent
Density 2.04 g/cm3
Melting point 5 °C (41 °F; 278 K)
Miscible
Solubility soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether
log P 0.429
Acidity (pKa) 0.926
Basicity (pKb) 13.071
Hazards
Harmful Xn
R-phrases R52/53
S-phrases (S2), S13
Related compounds
Related alkanenitriles
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

Thiocyanic acid is a chemical compound with the formula HSCN that exists as a mixture with the isomeric compound isothiocyanic acid (HNCS).[3] It is the sulfur analog of cyanic acid (HOCN).

It is a weak acid, bordering on strong, with a pKa of 1.1 at 20 °C and extrapolated to zero ionic strength.[4]

HSCN is predicted to have a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen. It has been observed spectroscopically but has not been isolated as a pure substance.[5]

The salts and esters of thiocyanic acid are known as thiocyanates. The salts are composed of the thiocyanate ion (SCN) and a suitable metal cation (e.g., potassium thiocyanate, KSCN). The esters of thiocyanic acid have the general structure R-SCN.

References

  1. ^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9257.
  2. ^ "thiocyanic acid (CHEBI:29200)". Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. USA: European Bioinformatics Institute. 18 October 2009. Main. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. Inorganic Chemistry Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  4. ^ Martell, A. E.; Smith, R. M.; Motelaitis, R. J. NIST Database 46 National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaithersburg, MD, 2001.
  5. ^ Wierzejewska, M.; Mielke, Z. (2001). "Photolysis of Isothiocyanic Acid HNCS in Low-Temperature Matrices. Infrared Detection of HSCN and HSNC Isomers". Chemical Physics Letters 349: 227–234.  
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