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Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece

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Title: Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece  
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Subject: Timeline of modern Greek history, History of the Orthodox Church, Religion in Greece, History of Eastern Christianity
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece

This is a timeline of the presence of Orthodoxy in Greece. The history of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the Greek people, the areas they ruled historically, as well as the territory now composing the modern state of Greece.

Christianity was first brought to the geographical area corresponding to modern Greece by the Apostle Paul, although the church's apostolicity also rests upon St. Andrew who preached the gospel in Greece and suffered martyrdom in Patras, Titus, Paul's companion who preached the gospel in Crete where he became bishop, Philip who, according to the tradition, visited and preached in Athens, Luke the Evangelist who was martyred in Thebes, Lazarus of Bethany, Bishop of Kition in Cyprus, and John the Theologian who was exiled on the island of Patmos where he received the Revelation recorded in the last book of the New Testament. In addition, the Theotokos is regarded as having visited the Holy Mountain in 49 AD according to tradition.[note 1] Thus Greece became the first European area to accept the gospel of Christ. Towards the end of the 2nd century the early apostolic bishoprics had developed into metropolitan sees in the most important cities. Such were the sees of Thessaloniki, Corinth, Nicopolis, Philippi and Athens.[1]

By the 4th century almost the entire Balkan peninsula constituted the Exarchate of Illyricum which was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. Illyricum was assigned to the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople by the emperor in 732. From then on the Church in Greece remained under Constantinople till the fall of the Byzantine empire to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. As an integral part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the church remained under its jurisdiction until Greek independence.[1] Under Ottoman rule, up to "6,000 Greek clergymen, ca. 100 Bishops, and 11 Patriarchs knew the Ottoman sword".[2][3][note 2]

The Greek War of Independence of 1821–28 created an independent southern Greece, but created anomalies in ecclesiastical relations since the Ecumenical Patriarch remained under Ottoman tutelage, and in 1850 the Endemousa Synod in Constantinople declared the Church of Greece autocephalous.

In the 20th century, during much of the period of communism, the Church of Greece saw itself as a guardian of Orthodoxy. It cherishes its place as the cradle of the primitive church and the Greek clergy are still present in the historic places of Istanbul and Jerusalem, and Cyprus.[9] The autocephalous Church of Greece is organised into 81 dioceses, however 35 of these – known as the Metropolises of the New Lands – are nominally under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople but are administered as part of the Church of Greece; although the dioceses of Crete, the Dodecanese, and Mount Athos are under the direct jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.[10][note 3]

The Archbishop of Athens and All Greece presides over both a standing synod of twelve metropolitans (six from the new territories and six from southern Greece), who participate in the synod in rotation and on an annual basis, and a synod of the hierarchy (in which all ruling metropolitans participate), which meets once a year.[1]

The government observes several religious holidays as national holidays including Epiphany, Clean Monday (the start of Great Lent), Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday, Holy Spirit Day, the Dormition of the Theotokos and Christmas.[11]

Among the current concerns of the Church of Greece are the Christian response to globalization, to interreligious dialogue, and a common Christian voice within the framework of the European Union.[1]

The population of Greece is 11.4 million,[12][note 4] 98% of which are Greek Orthodox.[15][note 5]

Apostolic era (33–100)

Ante-Nicene era (100–325)

Patriarchate of Rome Era (325–732)

Nicene era (325–451)

  • 375 Basil the Great writes On the Holy Spirit, confirming the divinity of the Holy Spirit.
  • 377 Epiphanius of Salamis (Cyprus) writes Panarion (Πανάριον, "Medicine Chest"), also known as Adversus Haereses ("Against Heresies"), listing 80 heresies, some of which are not described in any other surviving documents from the time .
  • 378 Visigoths defeat Emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople, permanently weakening northern borders of the empire.
  • 379 Death of Basil the Great; the Cappadocian Fathers Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus the Theologian, and Gregory of Nyssa set their mark on all subsequent history of the Greek churches, through Basil's On the Holy Spirit, and Rules; Gregory of Nazianzus' Five Theological Orations; and Gregory of Nyssa's polemical works against various heretical teachings.[108]
  • 380 Christianity established as the official faith of the Roman Empire by Emperor Theodosius the Great.

Early Byzantine era (451–843)

  • 650 The Patriarchate of Constantinople counted 32 metropoles, or capitals of ecclesiastical provinces, 1 autocephalous metropolis, 34 autocephalous archbishoprics, and 352 bishoprics–a grand total of 419 dioceses.[187]
  • 654 Invasion of Rhodes by Arabs.
  • 662 Parthenon in Athens rededicated in honour of the Mother of God as "Panagia Atheniotissa" (Panagia of Athens), becoming the fourth most important pilgrimage site in the Eastern Roman Empire after Constantinople, Ephesus and Thessalonica;[188] death of Maximus the Confessor.
  • 663-668 Syracuse became the imperial seat of Emperor Constans II, and passed to the Greek Rite becoming the Metropolis of the whole Sicilian Orthodox Church.[189]
  • 669-78 First Arab siege of Constantinople; at Battle of Syllaeum Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of Greek Fire, ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe.
  • 680–681 Sixth Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople, condemning Monothelitism and affirming Christology of Maximus the Confessor, affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. Sergius of Constantinople and Pope Honorius of Rome are both explicitly anathematized for their support of Monothelitism.
  • 685 First monastics come to Mount Athos; emperor Justinian II is the first emperor to have the figure of the Lord Jesus Christ stamped on a coin.[note 25]
  • 688 Emperor Justinian II and Caliph Abd al-Malik sign treaty neutralizing Cyprus.
  • 692 The "Pentarchy" form of government of universal Christendom by five patriarchal sees received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the Council in Trullo, held in Constantinople, which ranked the five sees as Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem;

Patriarchate of Constantinople Era (732–1850)

  • 732-33 Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian transfers Southern Italy (Sicily and Calabria), Greece, and the Aegean from the jurisdiction of the Pope to that of the Ecumenical Patriarch in response to Pope St. Gregory III of Rome's support of a revolt in Italy against iconoclasm, adding to the Patriarchate about 100 bishoprics;.[187][198][note 28][note 29] the Iconoclast emperors took away from the Patriarch of Antioch 24 episcopal sees of Byzantine Isauria, on the plea that he was a subject of the Arab caliphs;[187] the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople became co-extensive with the limits of the Byzantine Empire.;[187]
  • 734 Death of Peter the Athonite, commonly regarded as one of the first hermits of Mount Athos.[200][201]
  • 739 Emperor Leo III (717–41) publishes his Ecloga, designed to introduce Christian principle into law; Byzantine forces defeat a great Umayyad invasion of Asia Minor at Battle of Akroinon,[202] renaming the city Nicopolis (Greek for "city of victory").
  • 746 Byzantine forces regain Cyprus from the Arabs.
  • 754 Iconoclastic Council (Council of Hieria) held in Constantinople under the authority of Emperor Constantine V Copronymus, condemning icons and declaring itself to be the Seventh Ecumenical Council; Constantine begins dissolution of the monasteries.

Byzantine Imperial era (843–1204)

Latin Occupation and End of Byzantium (1204–1453)

  • 1261 End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs; Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos makes Mystras seat of the new Despotate of Morea, where a Byzantine renaissance occurred.
  • 1265–1310 Arsenite Schism of Constantinople, beginning when Patr. Arsenius Autorianus excommunicated emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos.
  • 1274 Orthodox clergy attending the Second Council of Lyon, accept supremacy of Rome and filioque clause.
  • 1275 Unionist Patr. of Constantinople John XI Beccus elected to replace Patr. Joseph I Galesiotes, who opposed Council of Lyon.
  • c. 1276–80 Martyrdom by Latins of monks of Iviron Monastery.[301][302]
  • 1275 Persecution of Athonite monks by Emp. Michael VIII and Patr. John XI Beccus.
  • 1279
  • 1281 Pope Martin IV authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established Byzantine Empire in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year due to the Sicilian Vespers.
  • 1282 Death of 26 martyrs of Zografou monastery on Mount Athos, martyred by the Latins.[303][304]
  • 1283 Accommodation with Rome officially repudiated.
  • c. 1285 Death of venerable martyrs Abbot Euthymius and twelve monks of Vatopedi, who suffered martyrdom for denouncing the Latinizing rulers Michael Paleologos (1261–1281) and John Bekkos (1275–1282) as heretics.[305][306]
  • 1287 Last record of Western Rite Monastery of Amalfion (Monastery of Saint Mary of the Latins) on Mount Athos.[307]
  • 1292 The monastery of St. Nicholas is founded on Ioannina Island by Michael Philanthropinos (who had served as the Metropolitan of Ioannina), being oldest of five Greek Orthodox monasteries established there between the 13th and 17th centuries.[308][note 48]
  • 14th century "Golden Age" of Thessaloniki in both literature and art, many churches and monasteries built.[309]

Ottoman Rule (1453–1821)

"The fifteenth-century Ottoman Empire reunited the Roman Orthodox as subjects of their patriarch in Constantinople. Yet it was not the Byzantine Empire in disguise. Even though Mehmed resettled Constantinople as the centre of the Roman Orthodox world, he was even more effective in making it the capital of an Islamic empire."[361] Furthermore, as British historian Sir Steven Runciman has written: "it was Orthodoxy that preserved Hellenism throughout the dark centuries; but without the moral force of Hellenism Orthodoxy itself might have withered."[362] In addition, Greeks were forbidden to build or furnish churches, to carry arms or to dress like Moslems.[363] However following the example of Byzantine emperors, the Sultans hastened to ratify the ownership of land by the Church and by monasteries and renewed their privileges.[364]
  • 1556–65 The Patriarchal School of Joasaph II is initially established in Constantinople as a Greek school under the direction of Ioannes Zygomalas, being the forerunner of the later Great School of the Nation.[388]
  • 1559 Death of Icon painter Theophanes the Cretan (Theophanes Strelitzas).[389]
  • 1561 Compilation of the Nomocanon of Manuel Malaxos, a notary of the Metropolitan Diocese of Thebes, having a wide circulation, with a version in classical Greek and another in modern Greek.[321][note 68]
  • 1565 The inhabitants of Epirus and Albania rose and slaughtered the officers charged with carrying out the child levy, but the Sultan sent to the local Sanjak-bey a reinforcement of 500 Janissaries and the revolt was put down.[390]
  • 1569 All the landed property of the monasteries in the Ottoman Empire are confiscated by Sultan Selim II.[222]
  • 1571–1878 Restoration of Church of Cyprus to Orthodox rule, under the Ottomans.[note 69]
  • 1749 Athonite Ecclesiastical Academy ("Athonite School") is founded on Mount Athos by the brethren of the Monastery of Vatopedion.[222]
  • 1751 New Virgin Martyr Kyranna of Thessalonica.[457]
  • 1752 Death of philosopher, theologian and lawyer Vikentios Damodos (1700-1752), the first Orthodox to write a theological Dogmatics.[458][note 89]
  • 1753–59 Eminent theologian and scholar Eugenios Voulgaris heads the Athonite School, envisaging a revival and upgrading of learning within the Orthodox Church through substantial training in the classics combined with an exposure to modern European philosophy, including Locke, Leibniz and Wolff.[459][note 90]
  • 1754 Hesychast Renaissance begins with the Kollyvades Movement,[222] whose leaders included St. Makarios of Corinth, Christophoros of Arta, Agapios of Cyprus, Athanasios of Paros, Neophytos Kausokalyvites, and St. Nicodemus the Hagiorite;[461][note 91] discovery of the holy relics of the "Four Martyrs of Megara": Polyeuctos, George, Adrianos and Platon, the "Newly-Revealed".[463][464]
  • 1755-1756 Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ec. Patr. Cyril V, and attended by Patriarchs Matthew (Psaltis) of Alexandria and Parthenius of Jerusalem, and several bishops representing the Orthodox patriarchates,[note 92], decrees that Western converts must be baptized upon their reception into the Orthodox Church;[465][466] this council also condemns and anathematizes anyone that dares to change the calendar (Sigillion of 1756 issued against the Gregorian Calendar by Patr. Cyril V of Constantinople).[465]
  • 1759 Conservative circles of Mount Athos came out openly against the progressive educational methods of Eugenios Voulgaris, who resigned from the directorship of the Athonite Academy in 1759, and was replaced by Nikolaos Zerzoulis, one of the first proponents of Newtonian science in Greek education.[467]
  • 1760 On Pascha, 1760, the inhabitants of 36 villages in the Karamouratades district of Northern Epirus (east of Premeti) apostasized to Islam.[423][note 93][note 94]
  • 1768 Community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Florida.[469]

Greek War of Independence (1821–1829)

"One of the pious views of modern Greece concerns the role of the Orthodox Church in the establishment of the modern Greek nation-state. According to this view, the Church, in the role of a latter-day Noah's Ark, saved the Greek nation in the centuries of the Turkish and Western 'deluge' following the fall of the eastern Roman empire in 1453. The Orthodox Church, by protecting the true faith against both Muslim and Latin temporal princes in the centuries of foreign rule, preserved Greek identity and kept the Greek nation from being assimilated by the nations of its foreign rulers. According to the same view, the Orthodox Church welcomed the Greek War of Independence in 1821 and blessed the arms of the Greek insurgents. Indeed, many Orthodox prelates assumed a leading role in insurgent Greece and played an important part not only in ecclesiastical but also in political and military matters. Following Independence, a Latin prince and his Western advisers severed the links that had united the Church of Greece with the Ecumenical Patriarchate and placed the Church under the authority of his temporal power."[507]

First Hellenic Republic (1829–1832)

  • c. 1829 The purified and formal Katharevousa variety of Modern Greek is promoted as the official language (to 1976);[note 101] Ioannis Kapodistrias made Nafplion the first official capital of modern Greece (1829–1834).[530]
  • 1830 The fully sovereign status of Greece was accepted in the London Protocol of 3 February 1830.[note 102]
  • 1832 Treaty of Constantinople, European powers establish Greek protectorate;[532] Otho I was chosen king of Greece by the great powers at the conference of London in May 1832.[533]

Kingdom of Greece (1833–1924)

  • 1838 Council of Constantinople held, attended by Patriarchs Gregory VI of Constantinople and Athanasius V of Jerusalem, whose main theme was the Unia, and the extermination of Latin dogmas and usages;[541] death of New Martyr George of Ioannina.[542]
  • 1839 Theophilos Kairis of Andros condemned and imprisoned for teaching a form of Deism.[343]
  • 1844 Theological School of Halki founded;[543] Manthos and Georgios Rizaris, benefactors and members of the Filiki Eteria organization, funded the building of the Rizareios Ecclesiastical School in Athens, which continues to function as a religious and educational institution today, based in Halandri, Athens;[544] Prime Minister Ioannis Kolettis first coined the expression the "Great Idea" (Megali Idea), envisaging the restoration of the Christian Orthodox Byzantine Empire with its capital once again established at Constantinople, becoming the core of Greek foreign policy until the early 20th century;[note 109] King Otho I, a Roman Catholic in an Eastern Orthodox country, was forced to grant the Constitution of 1844 (after the rebellion of 3 September 1843), specifying that his eventual successor be Orthodox.[533]
  • 1845 Death of priest and scholar Neophytos Doukas, author of a large number of books and translations of ancient Greek works, and one of the most important personalities of the Greek Enlightenment during the Ottoman occupation of Greece.[546]
  • 1847 At nearly eighty years of age, the monk Christophoros Panayiotopoulos (Papoulakos) c. 1770–1861, undertook a popular preaching mission in the villages of Achaea to revitalize the spiritual conditions of the people which were slowly becoming westernized with an Enlightenment ideology, affecting the sociological make up of the newborn Greek state within a decade;[547] ultimately Papoulakos helped bring the Greek people back to their roots in Orthodoxy and the Christian ideal, for which he suffered much persecution from both the Church and State and died in exile, and is today renowned as a great ascetic and hero of modern Greece.[note 110]

Autocephalous Era (1850–Present)

  • 1852 By Law 201 (Grk.: ΣΑ') of 1852, the Greek government, ignoring reference to the Patriarchal Tome of 1850, revised certain articles of the Pharmakidis-Maurer Church constitution (of 1833), however without changing the Church's subjection to the state;[547][note 113] liberal Greek theologian Theoklitos Pharmakidis, a proponent of the ideas of Adamantios Korais and the Greek Enlightenment, published The Synodal Tomos or Concerning Truth, a strong attack on the conditions found in the Tomos of Autocephaly of 1850, arguing that there was nothing uncanonical about the establishment set up in 1833, and stating that: "the Eastern Church is everywhere joined to the state, never being separated from it, never divided from the sovereigns since Byzantine times, and always subordinate to them."[551]
  • 1855 The Holy Cross School of Jerusalem (Theological School of the Patriarchal Throne of Jerusalem) is founded under Patriarch Cyril II of Jerusalem, located at the Monastery of the Holy Cross, functioning for about fifty years with some interruptions (1855-1909).[477][543][552]
  • 1856 Death of Neophytos Vamvas, Greek cleric and educator who had translated the Bible into Modern Greek.[553]
  • 1857 Death of Konstantinos Oeconomos, by common consensus the most important 19th-century Greek churchman and theologian, being the only person to criticize the Bavarian regime on an intellectual level, and an implacable opponent of Pharmakidis' theological ideals, symbolizing Greece's ecclesiastical consciousness at that time.[554][note 114]
  • 1857–66 J.P. Migne produces the Patrologia Graeca in 162 volumes,[555] including both the Eastern Fathers and those Western authors who wrote before Ecclesiastical Latin became predominant in the Western Church in the 3rd century.
  • 1860 The Ottoman Government tries to intervene in Athonite affairs with a constitution drawn up by Hushni Pasha, the Governor of Thessaloniki.[222]
  • 1863 George I enthroned as King of Greece, whose long reign (1863–1913) was the formative period for the development of Greece as a modern European state.[556]
  • 1864 Holy Trinity Church (New Orleans, LA) becomes the first Orthodox parish to be established on American soil, by Greeks;[557] the Ionian Islands (Eptanisa) are united with Greece,[558] and were transferred in 1866 to the jurisdiction of the Greek Church from Contsantinople.[559]
  • 1866 Beginning of the Great Cretan Revolution (1866–1869), officially proclaimed on 21 August 1866;[560] the holocaust of Arkadi Monastery in Crete;[561] charismatic Greek Orthodox lay theologian, preacher, ethicist and writer Apostolos Makrakis came to Athens, where for six months he delivered twenty speeches in Concord Square on the subject of 'The Work of the Fathers of 1821 and How it Can Best and Quickest Be Brought to a Conclusion' , which were published in the newspaper Justice, and republished in book form in 1886.[562]
  • 1871 Body of Patr. Gregory V returned to Athens and entombed in cathedral.[563][note 115]
  • 1872 Council of Constantinople (Pan-Orthodox Synod) is convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VI, and attended by Patriarchs Sophronius IV of Alexandria and Procopius II of Jerusalem and several bishops, condemning phyletism (ethnocentric belief that Orthodox Christians in a given place and time should be divided into separate exarchates, based on ethnicity), and condemning the Bulgarian Exarchate; the decisions of this council are later accepted by the other local Orthodox Churches.[465][564]
  • 1873 Philotheos Bryennios discovers the Didache in manuscript with copies of several early Church documents.[565][note 116]
  • 1875 Giovanni Marango (Grk: Ιωάννης Μαραγκός) is installed as a Roman Catholic Archbishop in Athens, being the first Roman hierarch in Athens since 1458, when Niccolo Protimo of Euboea (the last Latin titular Archbishop of Athens) departed;[566] a Patriarchal and Synodal Decision was sent to all Bishops everywhere, whereby the manner of reception of Latin converts was left to the judgement of the local Bishops.[567]
  • 1877 Death of Arsenios of Paros.[568][569]
  • 1878 Council of Athens, convened and presided over by Metr. Procopius I of Athens, condemned the Makrakists, obtaining closure of Apostolos Makrakis' "School of the Logos" on the pretext that it taught doctrines opposed to the tenets of the Church, and addressed an encyclical to the whole body of Christians in Greece that was read in the churches, charging Makrakis with attempting to introduce innovations;[note 117] Cyprus is ceded to Britain by Ottoman Empire at the Congress of Berlin.[570]
  • 1882 Thessaly and part of Epirus added to the Church of Greece, after the Ottomans cede Thessali[559][574] and Arta[575] regions to Greece (1881).
  • 1885 Prominent Greek painter Nicholaos Gysis paints the famous "Secret school" ("κρυφό σχολειό"), referring to the underground schools provided by the Greek Orthodox Church in monasteries and churches during the time of Ottoman rule in Greece (15th–19th centuries) for keeping alive Orthodox Christian doctrines and Greek language and literacy.[576]
  • 1888 Typikon of the Great Church of Christ is published with revised church services, prepared by Protopsaltis George Violakis, issued with the approval and blessing of the Ecumenical Patriarch, while the Sabaite (monastic) Typikon continued to be used in the Church of Russia;[note 119] Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Dionysius V, and attended by several bishops, permits the reception of Western converts to Orthodoxy by the rite of Chrismation as an act of economia (dispensation) in extreme circumstances;[465] death of Venerable Saint Panagis of Lixouri (Cephalonia).[578]
  • 1894 On 8 March, Nektarios of Pentapolis was appointed Dean of the Rizarios Ecclesiastical School, remaining as Dean until 1908, becoming a spiritual guide to many;[579][note 120] Apostolos Makrakis made his tenth and last Gospel tour, visiting Thebes, St. Theodore, Levadeia, Atalante, Chalkis, Kyme, Aliverion, Kariston, Gaurion on the islands of Andros, Syros, and his birthplace Siphnos.[580]
  • 1895 Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Anthimus VII, and attended by 13 bishops, condemns all the Franco-Latin heresies, including the new false dogma of the so-called Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary by St. Anne, and the blasphemous teaching that the pope is supposedly infallible and undeposable.[465]
  • 1897 Greco-Turkish War (1897).[581]
  • 1899 Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Ecumenical Patriarch Constantine V, and attended by several bishops, deposes the newly elected Patriarch Meletius II (Doumani) of Antioch, on the grounds of phyletism, due to the fact that the latter had been elected by an anti-Greek, pro-Arab party within the Antiochene Patriarchate, a similar party to that which caused the Melkite schism of 1724[note 121] and subsequent union with the Latins.[465]
  • 19th century Statistical figures for the population of Anatolia (Asia Minor) in the 19th century show that Christians constituted a minority of considerable importance: of the 12,254,459 total inhabitants, 9,676,714 (78.96%) were Muslim, and 2,350,272 (19.2%) were Christian, of which the Greek Orthodox element amounted to 1,016,722 or 8.3%.[582][note 122]
  • 1901 Evangelika riots in Athens Greece in November, over translations of the New Testament into Demotic (Modern) Greek, resulting in the fall of both the government and Metropolitan of Athens, and withdrawal of publications from circulation.[583][note 123]
  • 1902 Theocletus I (Minopoulos) becomes Metropolitan of Athens (1902-1917);[note 124] Church of Greece takes responsibility for Greek Orthodox parishes in Australasia from the Church of Jerusalem.[584][note 125]
  • 1904
  • 1904–1910 Nektarios of Pentapolis began building the Convent of the Holy Trinity on the island of Aegina, while yet Dean of the Rizarios Hieratical School (until 1908).[579]
  • 1905 Death of Apostolos Makrakis.[586]

Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)

Kingdom of Greece restored (1935–1967)

  • 1936 Apostolic Ministry of the Church of Greece founded ('Apostoliki Diakonia');[645] General Ioannis Metaxas, Prime Minister of Greece during the 4th of August Regime (1936–41), propagated a Third Hellenic Civilization (Ancient Greece and Byzantium being the first two);[646] by 1936, Zoe Brotherhood had opened 300 catechetical schools with 35,000 pupils, and received the first prize at the International Protestant Conference on Sunday Schools in Oslo.[647]

Military dictatorship (1967–1974)

Third Hellenic Republic (1974–Present)

  • 1975 Death of Papa-Dimitris (Gagastathis);[731][732] Article 3 of the Greek Constitution officially declares the prevailing religion in Greece as Eastern Orthodoxy under the authority of the autocephalous Church of Greece, united in doctrine to the Ecumenical Patriarchate.[note 166]
  • 1976 The Dimotiki (Demotic) language form of Modern Greek was made the official language, replacing the purified and formal Katharevousa language of Modern Greek which had been in use for nearly two centuries since foundation of the modern Greek state.[note 167]
  • 1977 Death of noted Greek theologian and professor Panagiotes N. Trembelas.[note 168]
  • 1978 Abortions are legalised in Greece but only under certain specific circumstances.[738][note 169]
  • 1979 Martyrdom of Archimandrite Philoumenos (Hasapis) of Jacob's Well.[739][740]
  • 1980

Member State of the European Community (European Union)

  • 2008 Death of Abp. Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens, proving to be one of the most popular archbishops in Greek history, reviving the appeal of the Church in a secular age, especially among young people;[852][853][854][855] Abp. Ieronymos II (Liapis) of Athens elected;[856] Glorification of George (Karslidis) of Drama;[857] Pan-Orthodox meeting in Constantinople in October of the Primates of the fourteen Orthodox Churches, signing a document calling for inter-orthodox unity and collaboration and "the continuation of preparations for the Holy and Great Council";[858] the 13-member standing committee of the Church of Greece denounced government plans to introduce a civil partnerships law, saying government support for common law marriage would amount to state-sanctioned "prostitution;"[859] Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew Addresses European Parliament.[860] the relics of Saint Peter of Argos are returned to Argos, Greece, from a monastery chapel in Rome belonging to a Spanish order of monks;[861][note 196] the Arab-Hellenic Center for Culture and Civilization (AHCCC) was established in Athens, financed with a donation of around 3.4 million USD by 'Europe Trust', a UK-based fund closely related with the Muslim Brotherhood’s umbrella organization 'Federation of Islamic Organizations in Europe (FIOE)'.[862][note 197]
  • 2009 Led by three senior Archbishops, a group of Orthodox clergy in Greece published the manifesto,
  • 2010 The Metropolis of Attica was split into 2 new Metropolises: the Metropolis of Kifissia, Amaroussion and Oropos, and the Metropolis of Ilion, Acharnes and Petroupolis;[875] on Sunday, 15 August, 2010 Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I conducted the first Divine Liturgy in 88 years at the historic monastery of Panagia Soumela in Trapezounta, northeastern Turkey, marking the first official religious service carried out at the ancient monastery since the foundation of the modern Turkish Republic;[note 199] death of Metr. Augoustinos Kantiotes of Florina, a prolific spiritual writer and defender of traditional Orthodox theology.[877]
  • 2011 On Sunday 3 April 2011, at 9:30 pm, in the Church of the Holy Trinity in
  • 2012 Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew gave a landmark address at the Turkish Parliament's Constitution Conciliation Commission, tasked with drafting a new constitution for Turkey, presenting an 18-page report demanding equal treatment and rights for Turkey's non-Muslim communities, including state-aid for churches and minority schools;[885][886][note 201] the Greek Orthodox Church of Albania rejected an official census in the Balkan country suggesting that ethnic Greeks represent just 6.75 percent of the overall population, with the Church instead claiming that the figure is at 24 percent, slightly above that of previous censuses that put the percentage at 20.7 percent in 1942 and 22.3 percent in 1927;[887][note 202] in June the Church of Cyprus gave a part of the holy relics of St. Lazarus to a delegation of the Russian Orthodox Church led by Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia;[888][note 203] in November Metr. Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus filed a blasphemy complaint against the director and actors of the theatrical play "Corpus Christi," which portrayed Jesus and the Apostles as gay men.[11][889][note 204]
  • 2013 Plot to assassinate Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew uncovered By Turkish police;

See also

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Church Fathers


  1. In 438, through the Theodosian Codex, Illyricum was again placed under Constantinopolitan jurisdiction.
  2. To some extent during the Acacian schism, 484–519.
  3. The Church of Panagia Pammakaristos (today's Fethiye Mosque), 1456–1587.
  4. The Church of the Virgin Mary of Vlahseraion in the Phanar, 1587–1597.
  5. The Church of St. Dimitrios in Xyloporta (Ayvansaray), 1597–1600.
  6. The Church of St. George in the Phanar, 1601–present.[368]
  7. Metropolitan Chrysostom (Kavourides) of Florina (1926–1932), a retired bishop; and
  8. Metropolitan Chrysostomos (Demetriou) of Zakynthos.
  9. In an official encyclical as a synod of living bishops, they declared that the new calendar Churches were in a state of schism, and then they consecrated four new bishops, including: Matthew (Karpathakis) of Bresthena; Germanus of the Cyclades; Christopher of Megara; and Polycarp of Diavlia. In 1937 they split amongst themselves; and today they have become more than 12 groups, on account of successive splintering, defrocking, rivalry, walling-off, and anathematizing.[644] Greek Old Calendarist groups maintain that they have not separated over a mere calendar, rather that the calendar is a symptom of what has been called "the pan-heresy of ecumenism."
  10. C. Cavarnos. Blessed Elder Philotheos Zervakos. Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, Belmont MA 1993. ISBN 0-914744-93-3
  11. (Greek) Μοναχού Παϊσίου Αγιορείτου. Ὁ Ἂγιος Ἀρσένιος ὁ Καππαδόκης. Εκδόσεις Ιερού Ησυχαστηρίου Μοναζουσών «Ευαγγελιστής Ιωάννης ο Θεολόγος», Σουρωτή Θεσσαλονίκης, 1991.


Published works

Byzantine Era

  • Rev. Dr. Andrew Louth. Greek East and Latin West : The Church, AD 681–1071. The Church in History Vol. III. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2007.
  • Rev. Dr. Byzantine Orthodoxies: Papers from the Thirty-Sixth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, University of Durham, 23–25 March 2002. Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies, Volume 12. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006.
  • Donald Nicol. Church and Society in Byzantium. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500–1453. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers Inc., 1971.
  • (German) Geschichte der Stadt Athen im Mittelalter. Von der Zeit Justinians bis zur türkischen Eroberung. Stuttgart, 1889.
  • ("History of Athens in the Middle Ages. From Justinian to the Turkish Conquest." 1889.)
  • The Byzantine Legacy in the Orthodox Church. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1982.
  • John Meyendorff. Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes. 2nd ed. Fordham Univ Press, 1979.
  • J. M. Hussey. Church & Learning in the Byzantine Empire, 867–1185. Oxford University Press, 1937.
  • Liebeschuetz, John Hugo Wolfgang Gideon. ISBN 0-19-814886-0
  • Milton V. Anastos. Aspects of the Mind of Byzantium: Political Theory, Theology, and Ecclesiastical Relations with the See of Rome. Ashgate Publications, Variorum Collected Studies Series, 2001.
  • Milton V. Anastos. "The transfer of Illyricum, Calabria, and Sicily to the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople in 732-33." In: Anastos, Studies in Byzantine Intellectual History. Variorum Collected Studies Series, London, 1979.
  • Prof. Anthony Kaldellis. A Heretical (Orthodox) History of the Parthenon. Department of Greek and Latin, The Ohio State University. 01/02/2007. (.pdf)
  • Prof. A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II (408–450). University of California Press, 2007.
  • Fr. Robert F. Taft (S.J.), Patriarch Athenagoras Orthodox Institute. Through Their Own Eyes: Liturgy as the Byzantines Saw It. InterOrthodox Press, 2006. 172pp.
  • Speros Vryonis, (Jr). "Byzantine Attitudes towards Islam during the Late Middle Ages." Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies 12 (1971).
  • The Byzantine Theocracy. Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Timothy S. Miller. Medieval Byzantine Christianity. Ed. by Derek Krueger. A People's History of Christianity, Vol. 3. Minneapolis, Fortress Press. 2006. pp. 252.

Latin Occupation

  • Aristeides Papadakis (with John Meyendorff). The Christian East and the Rise of the Papacy: The Church 1071–1453 A.D. The Church in History Vol. IV. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1994.
  • Deno John Geanakoplos. Byzantine East and Latin West: Two worlds of Christendom in Middle Ages and Renaissance: Studies in Ecclesiastical and Cultural History. Oxford Blackwell 1966.
  • E. Brown. "The Cistercians in the Latin Empire of Constantinople and Greece." Traditio 14 (1958), pp. 63–120.
  • Gill Page. ISBN 978-0-521-87181-5
  • Joseph Gill. Church Union: Rome and Byzantium, 1204–1453. Variorum Reprints, 1979.
  • Kenneth M. Setton. Catalan Domination of Athens, 1311–1388. Mediaeval Academy of America, 1948.
  • Kenneth Meyer Setton. The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: The Thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Volume 1. American Philosophical Society, 1976.
  • P. Charanis. "Byzantium, the West and the Origin of the First Crusade." Byzantion 19 (1949), pp. 17–36.
  • Prof. The Byzantine Lists: Errors of the Latins. 1st Ed. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000. 248pp.
  • R. Wolff. "The Organisation of the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople 1204–61." Traditio 6 (1948), pp. 33–60.
  • William Miller. The Latins in the Levant: A History of Frankish Greece 1204–1566. Cambridge, Speculum Historiale, 1908.

Ottoman Rule

  • Apostolos E. Vacalopoulos. The Greek Nation, 1453–1669: The Cultural and Economic Background of Modern Greek Society. Transl. from Greek. Rutgers University Press, 1975.
(One of the few scholarly studies in English of this period)
  • Bat Ye'or. The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude: Seventh-Twentieth Century. Translated by Miriam Kochan. Published by Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1996. 522pp.
  • Fr. Nomikos Michael Vaporis. Witnesses for Christ: Orthodox Christian Neomartyrs of the Ottoman Period 1437–1860. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2000. 377pp.
  • Christianity and Islam Under the Sultans, Vol. I. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929. 877 pp.
  • F. W. Hasluck. Christianity and Islam Under the Sultans, Vol. II. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929. 877 pp.
  • George P. Henderson. The Revival of Greek Thought, 1620–1830. State University of New York Press, 1970.
(Focuses on the intellectual revival preceding the War of Independence in 1821)
  • George A. Maloney, (S.J.). A History of Orthodox Theology Since 1453. Norland Publishing, Massachusetts, 1976.
  • Gerasimos Augustinos (Prof.). The Greeks of Asia Minor: Confession, Community, and Ethnicity in the Nineteenth Century. Kent State University Press, 1992. 270 pp. ISBN 9780873384599
  • Leften S. Stavrianos. The Balkans Since 1453. Rinehart & Company, New York, 1958.
  • (Latin) Martin Crusius (1526-1607). Turcograecia. 1584.
  • Speros Vryonis, (Jr). The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1971. (Very comprehensive, masterpiece of scholarship)
  • Steven Runciman. The Great Church in Captivity: A Study of the Patriarchate of Constantinople from the Eve of the Turkish Conquest to the Greek War of Independence. Cambridge University Press,1986.
  • Theodore H. Papadopoulos. Studies and Documents Relating to the History of the Greek Church and People Under Turkish Domination. 2nd ed. Variorum, Hampshire, Great Britain, 1990. (Scholarly; Source texts in Greek)
  • Elizabeth A. Zachariadou. The Great Church in captivity 1453–1586. Eastern Christianity. Ed. Michael Angold. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Cambridge Histories Online.
  • Elizabeth A. Zachariadou. Mount Athos and the Ottomans c. 1350–1550. Eastern Christianity. Ed. Michael Angold. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Cambridge Histories Online.
  • I. K. Hassiotis. From the 'Refledging' to the 'Illumination of the Nation': Aspects of Political Ideology in the Greek Church Under Ottoman Domination. Balkan Studies 1999 40(1): 41–55.
  • Socrates D. Petmezas. Christian Communities in Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century Ottoman Greece: Their Fiscal Functions. Princeton Papers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 2005 12: 71–127.

Greek War of Independence

  • David Brewer. The Greek War of Independence : the struggle for freedom from Ottoman oppression and the birth of the modern Greek nation. Woodstock, N.Y. : Overlook Press, 2001. 393pp.
  • Douglas Dakin. The Greek struggle for independence, 1821–1833. London, Batsford 1973.
  • Joseph Braddock. The Greek Phoenix: The Struggle for Liberty from the Fall of Constantinople to the Creation of a New Greek Nation. NY. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan. 1973. 1st ed. 233 pp.
  • Nikiforos P. Diamandouros [et al.] (Eds.). Hellenism and the First Greek war of Liberation (1821–1830): Continuity and Change. The Modern Greek Studies Association of the United States and Canada. Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1976.

Modern Greece

  • Giannēs Koliopoulos and Thanos Veremēs. ISBN 9780814747674
  • Anastasios Anastassiadis. Religion and Politics in Greece: The Greek Church's 'Conservative Modernization' in the 1990's. Research in Question, No.11, January 2004. (PDF).
  • C.M. Woodhouse. Modern Greece. 4th ed. Boston : Faber and Faber, 1986.
  • Charles A. Frazee. The Orthodox Church and independent Greece, 1821–1852. Cambridge University Press 1969.
  • Demetrios J. Constantelos. The Greek Orthodox Church: Faith, History, and Practice. Seabury Press, 1967.
  • Dimitri E. Conomos, Graham Speake. Mount Athos, the Sacred Bridge: The Spirituality of the Holy Mountain. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2005.
  • Effie Fokas. Religion in the Greek Public Sphere: Nuancing the Account. Journal of Modern Greek Studies. Volume 27, Number 2, October 2009, pp. 349–374.
  • Herman A. Middleton. Precious Vessels of the Holy Spirit: The Lives & Counsels of Contemporary Elders of Greece. 2nd Ed. Protecting Veil Press, 2004.
  • John Hadjinicolaou (Ed.). Synaxis: An Anthology of the Most Significant Orthodox Theology in Greece Appearing in the Journal Synaxē from 1982 to 2002. Montréal : Alexander Press, 2006.
  • John L. Tomkinson. Between Heaven and Earth: The Greek Church. Anagnosis Books, Athens, 2004.
  • Mother Nectaria McLees. EVLOGEITE! A Pilgrim's Guide to Greece. 1st Ed. St. Nicholas Press, Kansas City, MO, 2002. 927 pp.
  • Norman Russell. Modern Greek Theologians and the Greek Fathers. Philosophy & Theology Volume 18, Issue 1. 2007.10.17. Pages 77–92. (ISSN 08902461)
  • Rev. Dr. Nicon D. Patrinacos (M.A., D.Phil. (Oxon)). A Dictionary of Greek Orthodoxy – Λεξικον Ελληνικης Ορθοδοξιας. Light & Life Publishing, Minnesota, 1984.
  • Rev. A. H. Hore. Gorgias Press LLC, 2003.)
  • Victor Roudometof and Vasilios Makrides (Eds.). ISBN 9780754666967

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