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Tom Harkin

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Tom Harkin

Tom Harkin
United States Senator
from Iowa
In office
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 2015
Preceded by Roger Jepsen
Succeeded by Joni Ernst
Chairperson of the Senate Health Committee
In office
September 9, 2009 – January 3, 2015
Preceded by Ted Kennedy
Succeeded by Lamar Alexander
Chairperson of the Senate Agriculture Committee
In office
January 3, 2007 – September 9, 2009
Preceded by Saxby Chambliss
Succeeded by Blanche Lincoln
In office
June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003
Preceded by Richard Lugar
Succeeded by Thad Cochran
In office
January 3, 2001 – January 20, 2001
Preceded by Richard Lugar
Succeeded by Richard Lugar
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Iowa's 5th district
In office
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1985
Preceded by William Scherle
Succeeded by Jim Lightfoot
Personal details
Born Thomas Richard Harkin
(1939-11-19) November 19, 1939
Cumming, Iowa, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Ruth Harkin
Children Amy
Alma mater Iowa State University
Catholic University of America
Religion Roman Catholicism
Website Senate website
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Navy
United States Naval Reserve
Years of service 1962–1989 (Active)
1970–1989 (Reserve)
Rank Commander
Unit Naval Air Facility Atsugi
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

Thomas Richard "Tom" Harkin (born November 19, 1939) is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from Iowa from 1985 to 2015. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served in the United States House of Representatives from 1975 to 1985.

Born in Cumming, Iowa, Harkin graduated from Iowa State University and The Catholic University of America's Columbus School of Law. He served in the United States Navy as an active-duty jet pilot (1962–67). After serving as a Congressional aide for several years, he made two runs for the U.S. House of Representatives, losing in 1972 but winning in 1974. He went on to serve five terms in the House.

Harkin won a race for U.S. Senate in 1984 by a wide margin. He was an early frontrunner for his party's presidential nomination in 1992, but he dropped out in support of eventual winner Bill Clinton. He served five senate terms and at the end of his time in the senate served as chairman of the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. When he left the senate in 2015 he was the most senior junior senator after serving for 30 years and the sixth most senior senator over all.

On January 26, 2013, he announced his intention to retire from the Senate after completing his fifth term in 2015.[1]


  • Early life, education, and early political career 1
  • U.S. House of Representatives 2
  • U.S. Senate 3
    • Elections 3.1
    • Tenure 3.2
      • Vietnam controversy 3.2.1
      • Civil Air Patrol 3.2.2
      • Social policy 3.2.3
      • Israel 3.2.4
      • Immigration 3.2.5
    • Committee assignments 3.3
  • 1992 presidential election 4
    • Primary campaign 4.1
    • Considered as running mate 4.2
  • Electoral history 5
  • Personal life 6
  • Published works 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Early life, education, and early political career

Harkin was born in Cumming, Iowa. His father, Patrick Francis Harkin, an Irish American,[2] was a coal miner, and his mother, Frances Valentine (née Berčič), was a Slovene immigrant[3] who died when he was ten. He still maintains his childhood house, where he and his five siblings were raised without hot running water or a furnace.[4] He attended Dowling Catholic High School which is currently located in West Des Moines, Iowa.[5] Harkin attended Iowa State University on a Navy R.O.T.C. scholarship and became a member of Delta Sigma Phi fraternity. He graduated with a degree in government and economics in 1962, and served in the United States Navy as an active-duty jet pilot from 1962 to 1967. Harkin was stationed at Naval Air Facility Atsugi in Japan, where he ferried aircraft to and from the airbase that had been damaged in the Vietnam War and in operational and training accidents. He was also stationed for a time at Guantanamo Bay, where he flew missions in support of U-2 planes reconnoitering Cuba. After leaving active duty in 1967, he spent three years in the Ready Reserves, and transitioned into the Naval Reserves in 1970. He retired in 1989 with the rank of commander.

In 1969, Harkin moved to Washington, D.C., and began work as an aide to Democratic U.S. Congressman Neal Smith. During his work for Smith, he accompanied a congressional delegation that went to South Vietnam in 1970. Harkin published photographs he took during the trip and a detailed account of the "tiger cages" at Con Son Island prison in Life Magazine on July 17, 1970. The account exposed shocking, inhumane conditions and treatment to which prisoners were subjected. He received his Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from The Catholic University of America's Columbus School of Law in 1972.

U.S. House of Representatives

Harkin during his time in the House of Representatives

In 1972, the same year that he graduated from law school, Harkin returned to Iowa and immediately ran against an incumbent Republican Congressman, William J. Scherle. Scherle represented the southwestern portion of Iowa, which (with one brief exception) had not elected a Democrat to Congress since the end of the Great Depression. While winning a higher percentage of votes than any of Scherle's previous opponents, Harkin nevertheless lost the race.

After his 1972 defeat, Harkin practiced law in Ames before seeking a rematch against Scherle in 1974. In what was generally a bad year for Republicans due to the Watergate scandal, Harkin defeated Scherle by only 3,500 votes. He was re-elected four more times from Iowa's 5th congressional district without serious difficulty.

U.S. Senate


Harkin speaks during the first night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, opening his speech using American Sign Language in reference to his involvement with the Americans with Disabilities Act.

In 1984, Harkin won the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate and defeated freshman Republican Roger Jepsen by a surprisingly wide 11.8-point margin. He was re-elected in 1990, 1996, 2002, and 2008.


Harkin has served in the Senate longer than any Democrat in Iowa's history, and only Neal Smith has served in Congress longer among Iowa Democrats.

Along with George W. Bush.

Harkin (in addition to U.S. Senators Joe Biden and Barack Obama), introduced the BioFuels Security Act (S. 2817/109th) on March 16, 2006.

Harkin came out in favor of the Fairness Doctrine during an interview with Bill Press. (February 11, 2009)[6]

Harkin has been influential in increasing research funding for alternative medicine. He was instrumental in the creation of the U.S. Office of Alternative Medicine in 1992, which later became the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. His efforts and the Center's results, however, have been criticized.[7][8]

On July 16, 2013, Harkin introduced the charities.[10] The bill would make permanent an existing exemption from the Pension Protection Act of 2006 for a few small groups.[11]

On November 19, 2013, Harkin introduced the Minimum Wage Fairness Act (S. 1737; 113th Congress).[12] The bill would amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) to increase the federal minimum wage for employees to $10.10 per hour over the course of a two-year period.[13] The bill was strongly supported by President Barack Obama and many of the Democratic Senators, but strongly opposed by Republicans in the Senate and House.[14][15][16]

Vietnam controversy

While running for his Senate seat in 1984, and again while running for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1992, Harkin has faced criticism for claiming that he had flown combat missions over North Vietnam. In a 1979 round table discussion with other Congressional military veterans, Harkin said of his service as a navy pilot: "One year was in Vietnam. I was flying F-4s and F-8s on combat air patrols and photo-reconnaissance support missions". These comments were later published in a 1981 book by David Broder. After subsequent inquiries by Barry Goldwater and The Wall Street Journal, Harkin clarified that he had been stationed in Japan and sometimes flew recently repaired aircraft on test missions over Vietnam. His service flying F-4s and F-8s was later, while he was stationed at U.S. Naval Base Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.

Civil Air Patrol

Senator Harkin has dedicated 27 years of service to the Civil Air Patrol, the United States Air Force Auxiliary. He is currently the commander of the Congressional Squadron, a unique unit that gives active and retired members of Congress and congressional staff the opportunity to participate in CAP.

On 28 February 2011, Harkin introduced Senate Bill 418, which calls for recognition of Civil Air Patrol members who served during World War II. The bill would recognize WWII CAP "sub-chasers" with a single Congressional Gold Medal for their efforts in spotting several German U-boats and sinking two.

Today, Sen. Harkin is one of the more vocal supporters of the Civil Air Patrol. "CAP is getting into some interesting missions. The Deepwater Horizon disaster showed that volunteers could step up to support federal agencies and states at the same time. It was a good demonstration of CAP's ability to perform its mission during a national emergency."

Social policy

Harkin introduced the Americans with Disabilities Act into the Senate. Harkin delivered part of a speech in sign language so his deaf brother could understand.

Sen. Tom Harkin speaks at a rally held by the Coalition for the Advancement of Stem Cell Research.

Harkin has taken issue with the Supreme Court's handling of a number of cases related to ADA, concerned that the judgments severely limited the scope of the legislation's effectiveness:

"Together, these cases, as handled by the nation's highest court, have created a supreme absurdity: The more successful a person is at coping with a disability, the more likely it is for a court to find that he or she is no longer sufficiently disabled to be protected by the ADA. If that is the ruling, then these individuals may find that their requests for reasonable accommodations at work can be denied. Or that they can be fired—without recourse."[17]

In order to address these issues Harkin proposed the ADA Amendments Act, which in his words "will restore the proper balance and application of the ADA by clarifying and broadening the definition of disability, while increasing eligibility for ADA protections."[17]

Harkin has also been a vocal critic of what he describes as the biased nature of the Medicaid program:

"The current Medicaid system is unacceptably biased in favor of institutional care. Two-thirds of Medicaid long-term care dollars are spent on institutional services, with only one-third going to community-based care. It's time to rebalance the system."[18]

During his political career, Harkin has generally supported the Supreme Court ruling Roe v. Wade, which decided that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion. He has opposed most efforts to place legal restrictions on Roe v. Wade, including voting against a ban on

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
William Scherle
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Iowa's 5th congressional district

Succeeded by
Jim Lightfoot
Party political offices
Preceded by
Dick Clark
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Iowa
(Class 2)

1984, 1990, 1996, 2002, 2008
Succeeded by
Bruce Braley
United States Senate
Preceded by
Roger Jepsen
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Iowa
Served alongside: Chuck Grassley
Succeeded by
Joni Ernst
Preceded by
Richard Lugar
Chairperson of the Senate Agriculture Committee
Succeeded by
Richard Lugar
Chairperson of the Senate Agriculture Committee
Succeeded by
Thad Cochran
Preceded by
Saxby Chambliss
Chairperson of the Senate Agriculture Committee
Succeeded by
Blanche Lincoln
Preceded by
Ted Kennedy
Chairperson of the Senate Health Committee
Succeeded by
Lamar Alexander

External links

  1. ^ Beaumont, Thomas. "APNewsBreak: Harkin won't seek 6th Senate term". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  2. ^ McCrone, William P. (1990). "Senator Tom Harkin: reflections on disability policy | Journal of Rehabilitation | Find Articles at BNET". Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  3. ^ "Biography of Tom Harkin". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  4. ^ Judith Miller (1992-02-09). "Tom Harkin's Old-Time Religion - Biography". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  5. ^ Miller, Judith. "Tom Harkin's Old-Time Religion", The New York Times, February 9, 1992. Accessed November 6, 2007. "After his mother died, Harkin, an altar boy, went to Dowling Catholic High School in Des Moines and won a Navy R.O.T.C. scholarship to college."
  6. ^ "Politico.Com: Videos". Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  7. ^ Budiansky S. (July 9, 1995). "Cures or 'Quackery'?". U.S. News & World Reports. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  8. ^ "Senator Tom Harkin: "Disappointed" that NCCAM hasn't "validated" more CAM". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  9. ^ "S. 1302 - All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  10. ^ "S. 1302 - CBO". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  11. ^ Bradford, Hazel (28 January 2014). "Senate passes pension relief for charities, rural cooperatives". Pensions and Investments. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  12. ^ "S. 1737 - All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  13. ^ "S. 1737 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  14. ^ Sink, Justin (2 April 2014). "Obama: Congress has 'clear choice' on minimum wage". The Hill. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  15. ^ Bolton, Alexander (8 April 2014). "Reid punts on minimum-wage hike". The Hill. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  16. ^ Bolton, Alexander (4 April 2014). "Centrist Republicans cool to minimum wage hike compromise". The Hill. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  17. ^ a b (2009)"Ability Magazine: Senator Harkin - Updating the ADA"". Retrieved 2012-04-03. 
  18. ^ "Ability Magazine: Senator Tom Harkin: Setting Our People Free Cooper". Retrieved 2012-04-05. 
  19. ^ "Tom Harkin on the Issues". Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  20. ^ Harkin: Stupak's abortion amendment is slippery slope
  21. ^ "Iowa Senator changes view, opposes banning same-sex marriage". Gay & Lesbian Times (1116). 14 May 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  22. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  23. ^ "'"Senate Vote 281 - Repeals 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell. The New York Times. 
  24. ^ Bill Clinton, "Remarks on Signing the Trade and Development Act of 2000", May 8, 2000|
  25. ^ "Combating Child Labour in Cocoa Growing" (PDF).  
  26. ^ David Wolfe and Shazzie (2005). Naked Chocolate: The Astonishing Truth about the World's Greatest Food. North Atlantic Books. p. 98.  
  27. ^  
  28. ^ a b "Protocol for the growing and processing of cocoa beans and their derivative products in a manner that complies with ILO Convention 182 concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor" (PDF). International Cocoa Initiative. 2001. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  29. ^ Tricia Escobedo (19 September 2011). "The Human Cost of Chocolate". CNN. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  30. ^ Karen Ann Monsy (24 February 2012). "The bitter truth". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  31. ^ Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer (31 March 2011). "Oversight of Public and Private Initiatives to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in the Cocoa Sector of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana" (PDF). Tulane University. pp. 7–12. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  32. ^ "Technical difficulties". Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  33. ^ Ericson, Jon. "WCF Courier - Harkin seeks supplement program for retirees". WCF Courier. WCF Courier. Retrieved September 2, 2012. 
  34. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  35. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  36. ^ "Harkin repeats claim that 14,000 people lose health insurance daily". Tampa Bay Times Politifact. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  37. ^
  38. ^ Jacobson, Louis (31 January 2014). "Sen. Tom Harkin says Cuba has lower child mortality, longer life expectancy than U.S.". Politifact. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  39. ^ Janet McMahon (November 2010). "Nov 2, A chance to "Just say no" to Congressional Israel Firsters" (PDF). The Washington Report for Middle East Affairs. American Educational Trust. p. 33. 
  40. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  41. ^ Miller, Judith: "Tom Harkin's Old-Time Religion", New York Times Magazine, February 9, 1992
  42. ^ a b c Our Campaigns - US President - D Primaries Race - Feb 01, 1992
  43. ^ Our Campaigns - IL US President - D Primary Race - Mar 17, 1992
  44. ^ GWEN IFILLPublished: May 13, 1992 (1992-05-13). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Front-Runner; Clinton Begins Search To Pick Running Mate - New York Times". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  45. ^ KATHARINE Q. SEELYEPublished: August 04, 2000 (2000-08-04). "Gore's List for a Running Mate Drops to 7 Names, Mostly Senators - New York Times". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  46. ^ Barabak, Mark Z. (2004-04-28). "Running Mate Rumors Fly - Los Angeles Times". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  47. ^ "FrontPage Magazine - The Bark of Tom Harkin". Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  48. ^ "IA District 5 Race - Nov 07, 1972". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  49. ^ "IA District 5 Race - Nov 05, 1974". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  50. ^ "IA District 5 Race - Nov 02, 1976". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  51. ^ "IA District 5 Race - Nov 07, 1978". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  52. ^ "IA District 5 Race - Nov 04, 1980". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  53. ^ "IA District 5 Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  54. ^ "IA US Senate Race - Nov 06, 1984". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  55. ^ "IA US Senate Race - Nov 06, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  56. ^ "IA US President - D Caucuses Race - Feb 10, 1992". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  57. ^ "IA US Senate- D Primary Race - Jun 04, 1996". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  58. ^ "IA US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1996". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  59. ^ "IA US Senate - D Primary Race - Jun 04, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  60. ^ "IA US Senate Race - Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  61. ^ [2] Archived November 6, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ "New York City Hosts First Disability Pride Parade « CBS New York". 1987-07-01. Retrieved 2015-07-13. 


See also

  • Harkin, Tom and Thomas, C. E. Five Minutes to Midnight: Why the Nuclear Threat Is Growing Faster Than Ever, Carol Publishing Corporation, 1990. ISBN 1-55972-042-5

Published works

In 2015 New York City held its first Disability Pride Parade, and Tom Harkin was its grand marshal.[62] He was also the grand marshal for the Chicago Disability Pride Parade that same year.

The Harkins' daughter Amy appeared on the NBC daytime reality series Starting Over from 2003 to 2004. Although Tom Harkin never appeared on the show, his voice was heard when his daughter spoke to him on the phone. She is currently a graduate student at the UCLA Anderson School of Management.

Senator Harkin made a brief cameo appearance as himself in the political satire Dave (1993), as did his fellow senators Christopher Dodd, Howard Metzenbaum, Paul Simon and Alan K. Simpson.

Senator Harkin married Minnesota native Ruth Raduenz in 1968 and has two daughters: Amy, born in 1976, and Jenny, born in 1981. Ruth Harkin is an attorney and was one of the first women in the United States to be elected as a prosecutor when, in 1972, she was elected to the office of county attorney of Story County, Iowa. She served as a deputy counsel for the U.S. Department of Agriculture before joining the Washington law firm of Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld, LLP, in 1983. In 1993, President Bill Clinton named her chairman and chief executive officer of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). Ruth Harkin left the government and became United Technologies' senior vice president for international affairs and government relations in April 1997, leading their Washington DC office. In 2002, Mrs. Harkin became a director of ConocoPhillips. Mrs. Harkin currently sits on the Iowa Board of Regents, the body responsible for overseeing the state's public universities.

Personal life

Electoral history

Coming from the pivotal and swing Midwestern state of Iowa, Harkin has figured in the running mate searches multiple times since his 1992 race. Clinton considered Harkin in 1992 because of his ties to labor and strong support after he left the presidential race.[44] In 2000, Harkin was considered a running mate by then-Vice President Al Gore. However, Harkin's age was one reason he was not considered as strongly this time.[45] In 2004, as Senator John Kerry (D-Massachusetts) looked at Harkin as a running mate among other Senate colleagues, though Harkin promoted his protege, then-Governor Tom Vilsack (D-Iowa).[46] However, it was Harkin who was Kerry's most effective attack dog, and many thought would have been a stronger running mate than the eventual nominee, John Edwards.[47]

Considered as running mate


. Harkin was the first Democratic primary contender to drop out and throw his support behind Clinton — a favor that led to a close relationship throughout the Clinton presidency. Arkansas of Bill Clinton and other primaries and ultimately lost the Democratic Party nomination to Governor New Hampshire), but he ran poorly in Paul Wellstone (with help from Senator Minnesota and Idaho and those in Iowa caucus Harkin was an early favorite in a small field of five candidates. Harkin won the [41] Harkin ran for

Primary campaign

1992 presidential election

Committee assignments

In May 2006 Harkin voted in favor of Senate Bill 2611, also known as the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act. Among the bill's many provisions, it would increase the number of H1B visas, increase security along the southern United States border with Mexico, allow long-time illegal immigrants to gain citizenship with some restrictions, and increase the number of guest workers over and above those already present in the U.S. through a new "blue card" visa program.[40] The bill ultimately failed to pass.


Harkin has been a staunch supporter of Israel as a member of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, which appropriates about $2 billion annually for military financing for Israel. As of 2010 he was the third-largest career recipient of pro-Israel Political Action Committee contributions in the Senate.[39]


His comments about Cuban healthcare have been criticized as misrepresenting the availability of quality care.[38]

However, in 2014 Harkin expressed some second thoughts. He criticized health reform as being too complex and convoluted. “All the prevention stuff is good but it’s just really complicated. It doesn’t have to be that complicated,” he said of the Affordable Care Act. He also believes the new legislation rewards the insurance industry. He said important reforms such as preventing insurance companies from discriminating against people with pre-existing conditions and keeping young adults on their parents’ health insurance plans until age 26 were laudable, but he now believes that Democrats should not have settled for a solution he believes is inferior to government-provided health insurance. In retrospect he believes the Democratic-controlled Senate and House should have enacted a single-payer healthcare system or a public option to give the uninsured access to government-run health plans that compete with private insurance companies. [37]

Harkin supported President Barack Obama's health reform legislation; he voted for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009,[34] and he voted for the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.[35] PolitiFact rated Harkin's 2009 claim regarding the number of Americans losing health insurance coverage "false."[36]

Harkin believes America faces a retirement crisis, saying "Pensions have gone by the wayside. Savings are down as people are just scraping by, so the only thing left is Social Security."[33]

[32]) Harkin has worked in other ways to combat the import of child labor-made products.[31][30][29] (Some difficulties in meeting the deadlines set in this Protocol have been encountered.[28] Harkin has also been active in combating the worst forms of

On December 18, 2010, Harkin voted in favor of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010.[22][23]

Harkin has come out in favor of Iowa Supreme Court decision in April 2009 that legalized same-sex marriage in Iowa. "We all grow as we get older; we learn things, we become more sensitive to people and people's lives," said Harkin. "The more I've looked at that, I've grown to think differently about how we should live. I guess I've got to the point of live and let live."[21]

Sen. Tom Harkin holds a press conference regarding legislation to improve healthy eating habits.

[20].Affordable Health Care for America Act, which places limits on taxpayer-funded abortions in the context of the November 2009 Stupak-Pitts Amendment He was very critical of the [19]

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