World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Tonarigumi

Emergency rice feeding by tonarigumi housewives

The Neighborhood Association (隣組 Tonarigumi) was the smallest unit of the national mobilization program established by the

  1. ^ Dear, The Oxford Companion to World War II
  2. ^ Pekkanan, Japan's dual civil society. Members without advocates
  3. ^ Cook, Japan at War: An Oral History
  4. ^ Dear, The Oxford Companion to World War II
  5. ^ Pharr, The State of Civil Society in Japan

Notes

  • Cook, Haruko Taya; Theodore F. Cook (1992). Japan at War: An Oral History. New York: The New Press. 
  • Dear, I.C.B.; M.R.D. Foot (2002). The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press.  
  • Pekkanen, Robert (2006). Japan's Dual Civil Society. Members without advocates. Stanford University Press.  
  • Schwartz, Frank J;  

References

See also

Formally abolished in 1947 by the American occupation authorities, the system survives to a certain extent in the modern chonaikai, or jichikai which are nominally independent voluntary associations, but which retain a quasi-governmental status in that they have limited responsibility for local administration and coordination of activities such as neighborhood watch and disaster relief.[5]

Later in the Pacific War, the tonarigumi received basic military training to serve as observers for enemy planes over cities or suspicious boats on the coasts. In the final stages of war, it was intended that the tonarigumi form a secondary militia, in the case of enemy invasion. Some tonarigumi took part in combat in Manchukuo, northern Chōsen and Karafuto, in the closing days of the Pacific War.

Tonarigumi were also organized in territories occupied by Japan, including Manchukuo, Mengjiang, and the Wang Jingwei Government, and later in occupied territories of Southeast Asia (Such as the Indonesian RT/RW system) with the same purposes.[4]

The government also found the tonarigumi useful for the maintenance of public security. A network of informants was established linking every neighborhood association with the Tokkō Police to watch for possible infractions of national laws, and suspect political or immoral behavior. [3]

[2] Neighborhood mutual-aid associations existed in Japan since before the

History & Development

Contents

  • History & Development 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • Notes 4

[1]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.