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Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi

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Title: Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi  
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Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi

Dyah Gitarja (Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi)
Monarch of Majapahit Empire
The statue of Tribhuwanottungadewi, queen of Majapahit, depicted as Parvati
Reign Majapahit: 1328 – 1350
Predecessor Jayanegara
Successor Hayam Wuruk
Consort Cakradhara (Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel)
Regnal name
Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani
Father Raden Harsawijaya (Kertajasa Jayawardhana)
Mother Dyah Gayatri (Rajapatni)
Religion Hinduism

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi or known in her regnal name Tribhuwannottunggadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, or also known as Dyah Gitarja, was a Javanese queen regnant and the third Majapahit monarch, reigning from 1328 to 1350. She appointed Gajah Mada as prime minister and pursued massive expansion of the empire.

Early life

She was the daughter of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit, and his consort Dyah Gayatri Rajapatni. She was the mother and predecessor to Hayam Wuruk, the fourth monarch of the Majapahit empire. She also bears the title Bhre Kahuripan (Duchess of Kahuripan). Tribhuwana is member of the Rajasa dynasty, rulers of Majapahit and its predecessor Singhasari Kingdom. From her mother's side, she was also granddaughter of Kertanegara of Singhasari.

Reign

According to Nagarakretagama, Tribhuawana came to the throne by the order of her mother (Gayatri) in 1329 replacing Jayanegara who was killed in 1328. Tribhuwana's reign ended as Gayatri died in 1350. Tribhuwana governed with the help of her husband, Kertawardhana.

In 1331, she led the army herself to the battle field with the help of her cousin, Adityawarman to crush rebellion in the areas of Sadeng and Keta. The decision partly to resolve the competition between Gajah Mada and Ra Kembar for the army general position to crush Sadeng.

Tribhuwana's reign is famous for the expansion of Majapahit. In 1343 Majapahit conquered the Kingdom of Pejeng, Dalem Bedahulu and the entire island of Bali. Adityawarman was sent to conquer the rest of the Kingdom of Srivijaya and the Melayu Kingdom in 1347. He was then promoted as uparaja (lower king) of Sumatra. Majapahit expansion continued under the reign of Hayam Wuruk, reaching Lamuri (present-day Aceh) in the West and Wanin (Onin Peninsula, Papua) in the East.

References

  • Bullough, Nigel (1995). Historic East Java: Remains in Stone. Adline Communications. 
  • Pringle, Robert (2004). Bali: Indonesia's Hindu Realm; A short history of. Short History of Asia Series. Allen & Unwin.  
Preceded by
Jayanegara
Monarch of Majapahit Empire
1328–1350
Succeeded by
Hayam Wuruk


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