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Tsar of Russia

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Tsar of Russia

Monarchy of Russia
Former Monarchy
Imperial Coat of arms
Nicholas II
First monarch Rurik (as Prince)
Last monarch Nicholas II (as Emperor)
Style His Imperial Majesty
Official residence Winter Palace
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy began 862
Monarchy ended 15 March 1917
Current pretender(s) Disputed:
Nicholas Romanov,
Maria Vladimirovna

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes titles Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Moscow, Tsar of All Rus', and Emperor of All Russia. The list started with a semi-legendary Prince of Novgorod Rurik sometime in the mid 9th century (862) and ended with the Emperor of All Russia Nicolas II.[peacock term]

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus', Kievan Rus',[peacock term] the Grand Duchy of Moscow the Tsardom of Muscovy and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean "Prince" and "Great Prince" respectively but are often rendered as "Duke" and "Grand Duke" in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning "Caesar", which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. The full title of the Russian Emperors, according to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, was given as:

Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Chersonesos Taurica, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, Prince of Estland, Livland, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhni Novgorod, Sovereign of Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, and all northern territories; Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories – hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Circassians and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who were the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–1613.

Princes of Novgorod

Monarch Portrait Born-Died Relationship with Predecessor(s) Ruled from Ruled until
Rurik ?-879 none 862 879
Oleg of Novgorod (regent) ?-912 Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince Igor of Kiev 879 882

Grand Princes of Kiev

Monarch Portrait Born-Died Relationship with Predecessor(s) Ruled from Ruled until
Askold and Dir (non-Rurikids) ?-882 none 842[1][2] or 862 882
Oleg of Novgorod (regent) ?-912 Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince Igor of Kiev 882 Autumn 912
Igor I 100px ?-945 Son of Rurik 879 (in Novgorod, as an heir of Rurik); 913[3] Autumn 945
Saint Olga of Kiev (regent) ?-969 Igor I's wife and regent of Sviatoslav I of Kiev 945 962
Sviatoslav I the Great 942–972 Son of Igor I and Olga of Kiev 962 Spring 972
Yaropolk I 958 (960?)–980 Son of Sviatoslav I 972 980
Saint Vladimir I the Great 958–1015 Younger son of Sviatoslav I, brother of Yaropolk I 11 June 978 15 July 1015
Sviatopolk I the Accursed 980–1019 Son of Vladimir I 1015 Autumn 1016
Yaroslav I the Wise 978–1054 Younger son of Vladimir I, brother of Sviatopolk I Autumn 1016 Summer 1018
Sviatopolk I the Accursed 980–1019 Son of Vladimir I 14 August 1018 1019
Yaroslav I the Wise 978–1054 Younger son of Vladimir I, Younger brother of Sviatopolk I 1019 19 February 1054
Iziaslav I 1024–1078 First son of Yaroslav I February 1054 15 September 1068
Vseslav of Polotsk 1039–1101 Great-Grandson of Vladimir I. Usurped the Kievan Throne 15 September 1068 April 1069
Iziaslav I 1024–1078 First son of Yaroslav I 2 May 1069 March 1073
Sviatoslav II 1027–1076 Third son of Yaroslav I 22 March 1073 27 December 1076
Vsevolod I 1030–1093 Fourth son of Yaroslav I 1 January 1077 July 1077
Iziaslav I 1024–1078 First son of Yaroslav I 15 July 1077 3 October 1078
Vsevolod I 1030–1093 Fourth son of Yaroslav I October 1078 13 April 1093
Sviatopolk II 1050–1113 Son of Iziaslav I 24 April 1093 16 April 1113
Vladimir II Monomakh 1053–1125 Son of Vsevolod I 20 April 1113 19 May 1125
Mstislav the Great 1076–1132 Son of Vladimir II 20 May 1125 15 April 1132
Yaropolk II 1082–1139 Son of Vladimir II, Younger brother of Mstislav 17 April 1132 18 February 1139
Viacheslav I 1083-2 February 1154 Son of Vladimir II 22 February 1139 4 March 1139
Vsevolod II ?-1146 Grandson of Sviatoslav II 5 March 1139 30 July 1146
Igor II ?- 19 September 1146 Grandson of Sviatoslav II August 1146 13 August 1146
Iziaslav II Panteleimon 1097–1154 Older son of Mstislav 13 August 1146 23 August 1149
Yuri I the Long Arms 1099–1157 Younger brother of Mstislav 28 August 1149 Summer 1150
Viacheslav I 1083-2 February 1154 Son of Vladimir II Summer 1150 Summer 1150
Iziaslav II Panteleimon 1097–1154 Older son of Mstislav Summer 1150 Summer 1150
Yuri I the Long Arms 1099–1157 Younger brother of Mstislav August 1150 Winter 1151
Iziaslav II Panteleimon 1097–1154 Older son of Mstislav Winter 1151 13 November 1154
Viacheslav I 1083-2 February 1154 Son of Vladimir II Spring 1151 6 February 1154
Rostislav I 1110–1167 Second son of Mstislav 1154 January 1155
Iziaslav III ?-1162 Grandson of Sviatoslav II January 1155 1155
Yuri I the Long Arms 1099–1157 Younger brother of Mstislav 20 March 1155 15 May 1157
Iziaslav III ?-1162 Grandson of Sviatoslav II 19 May 1157 December 1158
Mstislav II 1125–1170 Son of Iziaslav III 22 December 1158 Spring 1159
Rostislav I 1110–1167 Second son of Mstislav 12 April 1159 8 February 1161
Iziaslav III ?-1162 Grandson of Sviatoslav II 12 February 1161 6 March 1161
Rostislav I 1110–1167 Second son of Mstislav March 1161 14 March 1167
Vladimir III 1132–1173 Younger son of Mstislav Spring 1167 Spring 1167
Mstislav II 1125–1170 Son of Iziaslav III 19 May 1167 12 March 1169

In 1169 Vladimir-Suzdal troops took Kiev. This act underlined the declining importance of that city.[according to whom?]

Grand Princes of Vladimir

Monarch Portrait Born-Died Relationship with Predecessor(s) Ruled from Ruled until
Saint Andrei I Bogolyubsky 1110–1174 Son of Yuri I 15 May 1157 29 June 1174
Mikhail I ?-1176 Brother of Andrei I 1174 September 1174
Yaropolk ?-after 1196 Grandson of Vladimir II 1174 15 June 1175
Mikhail I ?-1176 Brother of Andrei I 15 June 1175 20 June 1176
Vsevolod III the Big Nest 1154–1212 Brother of Andrei I and Mikhail I June 1176 15 April 1212
Yuri II 1189–1238 Son of Vsevolod III 1212 27 April 1216
Konstantin of Rostov 1186–1218 Son of Vsevolod III Spring 1216 2 February 1218
Yuri II 1189–1238 Son of Vsevolod III February 1218 4 March 1238
Yaroslav II 1191–1238 Son of Vsevolod III 1238 30 September 1246
Sviatoslav III 1196–3 February 1252 Son of Vsevolod III 1246 1248
Mikhail Khorobrit 1229–15 January 1248 Son of Yaroslav II 1248 15 January 1248
Sviatoslav III 1196– 3 February 1252 Son of Vsevolod III 1248 1249
Andrey II 1221–1264 Son of Yaroslav II December 1249 24 July 1252
Saint Alexander I Nevsky 1220–1263 Son of Yaroslav II 1252 14 November 1263
Yaroslav III 1230–1272 Son of Yaroslav II 1264 1271
Vasily of Kostroma 1241–1276 Son of Yaroslav II 1272 January 1277
Dmitry of Pereslavl 1250–1294 Son of St. Alexander 1277 1281
Andrey III 1255–1304 Son of St. Alexander 1281 December 1283
Dmitry of Pereslavl 1250–1294 Son of St. Alexander December 1283 1293
Andrey III 1255–1304 Son of St. Alexander 1293 1304
Saint Michael of Tver 1271–1318 Son of Yaroslav III Autumn 1304 22 November 1318
Yuri (III) of Moscow 1281–1325 Grandson of St. Alexander 1318 2 November 1322
Dmitry I the Terrible Eyes 1299–1326 Son of St. Michael 1322 15 September 1326
Alexander of Tver 1281–1339 Son of St. Michael 1326 1327
Alexander of Suzdal ?–1331 Grandson of Andrey II 1327 1328
Ivan I of Moscow Kalita 1288–1340 Grandson of St. Alexander 1328 31 March 1340

Since 1328 the title of the Grand Princes of Vladimir assigned to the Princes of Moscow.

Grand Princes of Moscow

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Ruled from Ruled until Death
Daniel no image 1261 unknown 1283 4 March 1303 4 March 1303, Moscow, Russia
Yury no image 1281 unknown 4 March 1303 21 November 1325 21 November 1325, Moscow, Russia
Ivan I Kalita no image 1288 Helena
9 children
21 November 1325 31 March 1340 31 March 1340, Moscow, Russia
Simeon the Proud no image 7 November 1316 Anastasia of Lithuania
no children

Euphraxia of Smolensk
no children

Maria of Tver
4 sons (died young)
31 March 1340 27 April 1353 27 April 1353, Moscow, Russia
Ivan II the Handsome no image 30 March 1326 Fedosia Dmitrievna of Bryansk
no children

Alexandra Ivanovna Velyaminova
4 children
27 April 1353 13 November 1359 13 November 1359, Moscow, Russia
Saint Dmitry I Donskoy no image 12 October 1350 Eudoxia Dmitrievna of Nizhny Novgorod
12 children
13 November 1359 19 May 1389 19 May 1389, Moscow, Russia
Vasily I no image 30 December 1371 Sophia of Lithuania
9 children
19 May 1389 27 February 1425 27 February 1425, Moscow, Russia
Vasily II the Blind no image 10 March 1415 Maria Yaroslavna of Borovsk
3 children
27 February 1425 27 March 1462 27 March 1462, Moscow, Russia
Ivan III the Great 22 January 1440 Maria Borisovna of Tver
one son

Sophia Palaiologina
8 children
5 April 1462 6 November 1505 6 November 1505, Moscow, Russia
Vasily III 25 March 1479 Solomonia Yuryevna Saburova
no children

Elana Vasilyevna Glinskaya
2 sons
6 November 1505 13 December 1533 13 December 1533, Moscow, Russia
Ivan IV the Terrible 25 August 1530 unmarried as Prince 13 December 1533 26 January 1547 28 March 1584

Tsars of Russia

Dates are listed in the Old Style, which continued to be used in Russia.

House of Rurikovich

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Tsar from Tsar until Death
Ivan IV the Terrible 25 August 1530, Kolomenskoye, Russia Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina-Yurieva
6 children

Maria Temryukovna
one son (died young)

Marfa Vasilevna Sobakina

Anna Alexeievna Koltovskaya

Anna Vasilchikova

Vasilisa Melentyeva

Maria Dolgorukaya

Maria Feodorovna Nagaya
26 January 1547 28 March 1584 28 March 1584, Moscow, Russia
Feodor I 31 May 1557, Moscow, Russia Irina Feodorovna Godunova
one daughter
28 March 1584 17 January 1598 17 January 1598, Moscow, Russia

House of Godunov

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Tsar from Tsar until Death
Irina (disputed) c.1557 Feodor I of Russia
a daughter
7 January 1598 15 January 1598 29 October 1603, Moscow, Russia
Boris I c.1551, Vyazma, Russia Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya
2 children
21 February 1598 13 April 1605 13 April 1605, Moscow, Russia
Feodor II 1589, Moscow, Russia unmarried, no children 13 April 1605 1 June 1605 1 June 1605, Moscow, Russia

Pseudo-Rurikovich usurpers

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Tsar from Tsar until Death
False Dmitry I
(Grigory Bogdanovich Otrepyev)
c. 1581 Marina Mniszech
no children
1 June 1605 17 May 1606 17 May 1606, Moscow, Russia
False Dmitry II c. 1582 Marina Mniszech
one son (posthumous)
10 July 1607 11 December 1610 11 December 1610, Kaluga, Russia
False Dmitry III (Sidorka) unknown unknown 28 March 1611 18 May 1612 July 1612

House of Shuysky

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Tsar from Tsar until Death
Vasiliy IV 22 September 1552, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia Elena Mikhailovna Repnina
no children

Maria Buynosova-Rostovskaia
2 children
19 May 1606 17 July 1610 12 September 1612, Gostynin, Poland

House of Vasa

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Tsar from Tsar until Death
Vladislav I 9 June 1595, Łobzów, Poland Cecilia Renata of Austria
no children

Marie Louise Gonzaga
no children
6 September 1610 November 1612 (deposed)
14 June 1634 (resigned his claim)
20 May 1648, Merkinė, Lithuania

House of Romanov

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Tsar from Tsar until Death
Michael I 12 July 1596
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova
1624
one stillborn child

Eudoxia Lukyanovna Streshneva
5 February 1626
ten children
26 July 1613 14 July 1645 12 July 1645, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Alexis I the Quietest 9 May 1629
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya
17 January 1648
13 children

Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina
1 February 1671
3 children
14 July 1645 29 January 1676 29 January 1676, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Feodor III 9 June 1661
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Agaphia Simeonovna Grushevskaya
28 July 1680
one son

Marfa Matveievna Apraksina
24 February 1682
no children
29 January 1676 7 May 1682 7 May 1682, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Sophia (regent) 17 September 1657
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
unmarried, no children 17 May 1682 27 August 1689 3 July 1704, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Ivan V
jointly with Peter I
6 September 1666
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova
1684
5 daughters
2 June 1682 8 February 1696 8 February 1696, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Peter I the Great
jointly with Ivan V 1682–1696
9 June 1672
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children
2 June 1682 2 November 1721 8 February 1725, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire

Emperors of Russia

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1917)

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Emperor from Emperor until Death
Peter I the Great 110px 9 June 1672
Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children
2 November 1721 8 February 1725 8 February 1725, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Catherine I 100px 100px 15 April 1684
Ringen (Rõngu), Duchy of Livonia, Sweden
Peter I of Russia
1707
9 children
8 February 1725 17 May 1727 17 May 1727,
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Peter II 23 October 1715
St. Petersburg, Tsardom of Russia
unmarried 18 May 1727 30 January 1730 30 January 1730, Moscow, Russian Empire
Anna 7 February 1693
Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland
November 1710
no children
13 February 1730 28 October 1740 28 October 1740, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Ivan VI (disputed) 23 August 1740
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
unmarried 28 October 1740 6 December 1741 16 July 1764 (murdered)
Shlisselburg, Russian Empire
Elizabeth 29 December 1709
Kolomenskoye, Tsardom of Russia
Alexey Razumovsky
1742
no children
6 December 1741 5 January 1762 5 January 1762,
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Peter III 21 February 1728
Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
16 August 1745
one son
9 January 1762 17 July 1762 17 July 1762 (murdered), Ropsha, Russian Empire
Catherine II the Great 100px 2 May 1729
Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia
Peter III of Russia
16 August 1745
one son
9 July 1762 6 November 1796 6 November 1796, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Paul I 100px 1 October 1754
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
29 September 1773
one stillborn son

Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
26 September 1776
ten children
17 November 1796 11 March 1801 11 March 1801
(assassinated)
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander I the Blessed 23 December 1777
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Louise of Baden
28 September 1793
2 daughters
24 March 1801 1 December 1825 1 December 1825, Taganrog, Russian Empire
Constantine I (disputed) 100px 27 April 1779
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
26 February
no children
1 December 1825 26 December 1825 27 June 1831
Vitebsk, Russian Empire
Nicholas I 100px 6 July 1796
Gatchina, Russian Empire
Princess Charlotte of Prussia
13 July 1817
7 children
26 December 1825 2 March 1855 2 March 1855,
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander II the Liberator 100px 29 April 1818
Moscow, Russian Empire
Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
16 April 1841
8 children
2 March 1855 13 March 1881 13 March 1881
(assassinated)
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander III the Peace-Maker 100px 10 March 1845
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Dagmar of Denmark
9 November 1866
6 children
13 March 1881 1 November 1894 1 November 1894
Livadiya, Russian Empire
Saint Nicholas II 6 May 1868
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
26 November 1894
5 children
1 November 1894 15 March 1917 17 July 1918 (executed)
Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
Michael II (disputed) 22 November 1878
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Natalia Brassova
15 October 1911
one son (born before his parents' marriage)
15 March 1917 16 March 1917 12 June 1918 (murdered)
Perm, Russian SFSR

See List of leaders of Russia for the continuation of leadership.

Pretenders to the Russian throne since 1917

See Line of succession to the Russian throne

References

External links

  • Godunov to Nicholas II by Saul Zaklad
  • (Russian) Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal
  • Timeline of Russian Emperors and Empresses
  • History of Russian imperial titles. Bibliography

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