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Tumen (unit)

Tumen or Tümen ("unit of ten thousand";[1] Turkic peoples.


  • Genghis Khan's organization 1
  • Magyar military organization of the Conquest Era 2
  • In modern armies 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Genghis Khan's organization

In Genghis Khan's military system, a Tumen was recursively built from units of 10 (Aravt), 100 (Zuut), and 1,000 (Mingghan), each with a leader reporting to the next higher level. Tumens were considered a practical size, neither too small for an effective campaign nor too big for efficient transport and supply. The military strategy was based on the use of tumens as a useful building block causing reasonable shock and attack.[3]

Magyar military organization of the Conquest Era

This same kind of military organization was used by the Magyars during the Conquest of Hungary. According to Ahmad ibn Rustah (c. 930), a Persian explorer and geographer, the "Magyars are a race of Turks and their king rides out with horsemen to the number of 10,000 and this king is called Kanda".[4]

In modern armies

Tümen is a military unit which is still used in the Turkish Army, consisting of 6,000 to 10,000 soldiers.[5] Its commander is a tümgeneral in the Army and Air Forces and a tümamiral in the Naval Forces. It is the equivalent of a modern Division.

See also


  1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - toman
  2. ^ Vietze, Wörterbuch Mongolisch - Deutsch, VEB 1988
  3. ^ Corvisier, André. A Dictionary of Military History and the Art of War. Blackwell Publishing, 1994. page 529
  4. ^ Laszlo Gyula, The Magyars: Their Life and Civilization, (1996), pp. 41–42.
  5. ^ Sabah Newspaper Online - Turkish Armed Forces
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