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Tunisian people

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Tunisian people

The majority (98% [1]) of modern Tunisians are Arabized Berber or Arab-Berber,[2] and are speakers of Tunisian Arabic. However, there is also a small (1 percent at most[1]) of pure native Berbers located mainly in the Jabal Dahar mountains in the South East and on the island of Jerba. The Berbers primarily speak Berber languages, often called Shilha or Tashlihit,[3] or have shifted to Tunisian Arabic.


Nearly all Tunisians (98 percent of the population) are Muslim.[4] There is a Jewish population on the southern island of Djerba and Tunis. There is also a small indigenous Christian population.[5]

Population


Source: National Institute of Statistics[6]

Vital statistics

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
1990 25.2 5.6 19.6 3.38
1991 24.9 5.6 19.3 3.31
1992 24.9 5.5 19.5 3.27
1993 8 572 200 24.0 5.7 18.3 3.12
1994 8 785 700 22.7 5.7 17.0 2.90
1995 8 957 500 20.8 5.8 15.0 2.67
1996 9 089 300 19.7 5.5 14.2 2.51
1997 9 214 900 18.9 5.6 13.2 2.38
1998 9 333 300 17.9 5.6 12.3 2.23
1999 9 455 900 16.9 5.7 11.2 2.09
2000 9 552 500 17.1 5.6 11.4 2.08
2001 9 650 600 16.9 5.6 11.4 2.05
2002 9 748 900 16.7 5.8 10.8 2.00
2003 9 839 800 17.1 6.1 11.0 2.06
2004 9 932 400 16.8 6.0 10.8 2.02
2005 10 029 000 17.1 5.9 11.2 2.04
2006 10 127 900 17.1 5.6 11.5 2.03
2007 10 225 100 17.4 5.5 11.8 2.04
2008 10 328 900 17.7 5.8 11.9 2.06
2009 10 439 600 17.7 5.7 12.0 2.05
2010 10 547 100 18.6 5.7 12.9 2.13
2011 10 673 800 18.8 5.9 12.9 2.15
2012 10 734 000

Source: National Institute of Statistics[6]

Genetic

While the vast majority of modern Tunisians identify themselves as Arabs, they are predominantly descended from Berber groups, with some Arab input. Tunisians are also descended, to a lesser extent, from other African, Middle Eastern and European peoples, specifically the Phoenicians/Punics, Romans, Vandals, French and Haratin. In sum, a little less than 20 percent of their genetic material (Y-chromosome analysis) comes from present day Arabian Peninsula, Europe or Sub-Saharan Africa.[7][8][9] "In fact, the Tunisian genetic distances to European samples are smaller than those to North African groups. (...) This could be explained by the history of the Tunisian population, reflecting the influence of the ancient Punic settlers of Carthage followed, among others, by Roman, Byzantine, Arab and French occupations, according to historical records. Notwithstanding, other explanations cannot be discarded, such as the relative heterogeneity within current Tunisian populations, and/or the limited sub-Saharan genetic influence in this region as compared with other North African areas, without excluding the possibility of the genetic drift, whose effect might be particularly amplified on the X chromosome.",[10][11] This suggests a fairly significant European input to Tunisian genetics compared to other neighbouring populations.

Y-Chromosome

Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Tunisia.[12]

Haplogroup n B E1a E1b1a E1b1b1 E1b1b1a3 E1b1b1a4 E1b1b1b E1b1b1c F G I J1 J2 K P,R R1a1 R1b1a R1b1b T
Marker M33 M2 M35 V22 V65 M81 M34 M89 M201 V88 M269 M70
Tunisia 601 0.17 0.5 0.67 1.66 3 3.16 62.73 1.16 2.66 0.17 0.17 16.64 2.83 0.33 0.33 0.5 1.83 0.33 1.16

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Nationality

noun:Tunisian(s)
adjective:Tunisian

Vital Statistics

Age structure

0–14 years: 22.2% (male 1,213,664/female 1,137,084)
15–64 years: 70.5% (male 3,759,955/female 3,704,677)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 358,447/female 415,198) (2010 est.)
0-14 years: 23.2% (male 1,274,348/female 1,193,131)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 3,638,014/female 3,728,294)
65 years and over: 7.5% (male 390,055/female 405,344) (2011 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
-1.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbaniziation

urban population: 67% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

22.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.24 years
male: 73.2 years
female: 77.42 years (2012 est.)

Ethnic groups

Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%[4]

Religions

(see Religion in Tunisia) Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%[4]

Languages

Tunisian Arabic (Modern Standard Arabic is official); French (especially in commerce); Shelha, Ghadamès, Nafusi, Sened and Djerbi; according to the 1998 Ethnologue report, about 26,000 Berbers in Djerba and Matmata speak Djerbi

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.3%
male: 83.4%
female: 65.3% (2004 est.)

The literacy rate among the Tunisian population increased greatly after its independence from France. According to the 1996 census data,[13] the literacy rate of the last generation of Tunisian men educated under the French rule (those born 1945-49) was less than 65%. For the first generation educated after independence (born 1950-1954), literacy in Arabic among males had increased to nearly 80%. (Sixty-two percent were also literate in French and 15 percent literate in English). Among the youngest generation included in the census (those born 1980-1984), 96.6% were literate in Arabic.

Among Tunisian women, the increase in literacy was even greater. The literacy rate among the last generation of women educated under the French was less than 30%. In the first generation educated after independence, this increased to just over 40%. For the youngest generation of women cited (born 1980-1984), literacy in Arabic had increased to slightly over 90%; over 70% of women were also literate in French.[14]

References

pt:Tunísia#Demografia
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