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Turbo (genus)

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Turbo (genus)

Turbo
Dorsal view of a shell of Turbo marmoratus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Vetigastropoda
Superfamily: Trochoidea
Family: Turbinidae
Subfamily: Turbininae
Genus: Turbo
Linnaeus, 1758[1]
Type species
Turbo petholatus Linnaeus, 1758
Species

See text.

Synonyms[2]
  • Lunatica Röding, 1798
  • Turbo (Aspilaturbo) S.T. Williams, 2008
  • Turbo (Batillus) Schumacher, 1817
  • Turbo (Callopoma) Gray, 1850
  • Turbo (Carswellena) Iredale, 1931
  • Turbo (Chaenoturbo) McLean, 1970
  • Turbo (Emilioturbo) Ortea & Espinosa, 1996
  • Turbo (Halopsephus) Rehder, 1943
  • Turbo (Lunatica) Röding, 1798
  • Turbo (Marmarostoma) Swainson, 1829
  • Turbo (Modelia) Gray, 1850
  • Turbo (Sarmaticus) Gray, 1847
  • Turbo (Senectus) Swainson, 1840
  • Turbo (Turbo) Linnaeus, 1758

Turbo is a genus of large sea snails with gills and an operculum, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Turbinidae, the turban snails.[2]

Turbo is the type genus of the family.

Description

The shells are more or less highly conspiral, thick, about 20–200 mm, first whorls bicarinate, last whorl large often with strong spiral sculpture, knobs or spines, base convex, with or without umbilicus. Species in this genus have a round aperture and a solid, dome-shaped calcareous operculum.

The first Turbo species were found in the Upper Cretaceous, approximately 100 million years ago.

Taxonomy

According to Alf et al.[3] the genus Turbo is divided in 16 Recent subgenera. The number of presently known living species in Turbo is 66 plus five subspecies.

Species

Species in the genus Turbo include:[2][3][4]


The following species were brought into synonymy:[2]
  • Turbo aculeatus Allan, 1818: synonym of Epitonium muricatum (Risso, 1826)
  • Turbo acutus Donovan, 1804: synonym of Turbonilla acuta (Donovan, 1804)
  • Turbo aethiops Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Diloma aethiops (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo agonistes Dall & Ochsner, 1928: synonym of Turbo scitulus (Dall, 1919)
  • Turbo amabilis Ozaki, 1954: synonym of Bolma guttata (A. Adams, 1863)
  • Turbo amussitatus Gould, 1861: synonym of Homalopoma amussitatum (Gould, 1861)
  • Turbo anguis Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Lunella undulata (Lightfoot, 1786)
  • Turbo anomala Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo cidaris cidaris Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo argentata Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus argyrostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo argenteus Anton, 1839: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus argyrostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo armatus Dillwyn, 1817: synonym of Bolma rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767)
  • Turbo arsinoensis Issel, 1869: synonym of Collonista arsinoensis (Issel, 1869)
  • Turbo aruginosa Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo petholatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo assimilis Kiener, 1847: synonym of Turbo fluctuosus W. Wood, 1828
  • Turbo asteriola Dall, 1925: synonym of Bolma bartschi Dall, 1913
  • Turbo aurantius Kiener, 1847: synonym of Turbo smithi G.B. Sowerby III, 1886
  • Turbo bicarinatus Woodward, 1833: synonym of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo breviculus Philippi, 1847: synonym of Littorina brevicula (Philippi, 1844)
  • Turbo brunneus Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo bruneus (Röding, 1798)
  • Turbo bryereus Montagu, 1803: synonym of Schwartziella bryerea (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo calcar Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Astralium calcar (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo canaliculatus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus argyrostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo carinatus Woodward, 1833: synonym of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo cinereus Born, 1778: synonym of Lunella cinerea (Born, 1778)
  • Turbo cingillus Montagu, 1803: synonym of Cingula trifasciata (J. Adams, 1800)
  • Turbo cingulata Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo petholatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo circularis Reeve, 1848: synonym of Turbo gruneri Philippi, 1846
  • Turbo classicarius J.E. Gray, 1850: synonym of Turbo sarmaticus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo clathratulus J. Adams, 1798: synonym of Epitonium clathratulum (Kanmacher, 1798)
  • Turbo clathratulus Kanmacher, 1798: synonym of Epitonium clathratulum (Kanmacher, 1798)
  • Turbo clathrus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Epitonium clathrus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo cochlus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Turbo marmoratus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo confragosus Gould, 1851: synonym of Astralium confragosum (Gould, 1851)
  • Turbo coreensis Recluz, 1853: synonym of Turbo granulatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo coronatus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Lunella coronata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo crenatus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Opalia crenata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo creniferus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Lunella coronata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo declivis Forskål, 1775: synonym of Rubritrochus declivis (Forskål, 1775)
  • Turbo delphinus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Angaria delphinus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo depressum Carpenter, 1856: synonym of Turbo funiculosus Kiener, 1848
  • Turbo dinegrata Rôding, 1798: synonym of Turbo petholatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo distortus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Angaria delphinus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo duplicatus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Turritella duplicata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo echinatus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Turbo chrysostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo elegantissimus Montagu, 1803: synonym of Turbonilla lactea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo elevatus Eydoux & Souleyet, 1852: synonym of Prisogaster elevatus (Eydoux & Souleyet, 1852)
  • Turbo elongatus Woodward, 1833: synonym of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo euthymi Jousseaume, 1881: synonym of Turbo petholatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo exoletus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Turritella exoleta (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo expansus Brown in J. Smith, 1839 : synonym of Littorina fabalis (Turton, 1825)
  • Turbo fabalis Turton, 1825: synonym of Littorina fabalis (Turton, 1825)
  • Turbo fasciata Renieri MS, Brocchi, 1814: synonym of Eulima glabra (da Costa, 1778)
  • Turbo fasciatus Renieri, 1804: synonym of Eulima glabra (da Costa, 1778)
  • Turbo ferrugineus Anton, 1839: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus argyrostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo filifer Deshayes, 1863: synonym of Leptothyra filifer (Deshayes, 1863)
  • Turbo filosus W. Wood, 1828: synonym of Turbo cailletii P. Fischer & Bernardi, 1856
  • Turbo fluctuatus Reeve, 1848: synonym of Turbo fluctuosus W. Wood, 1828
  • Turbo fokkesi Jonas, 1843: synonym of Turbo fluctuosus W. Wood, 1828
  • Turbo foliaceus Rousseau, 1854: synonym of Turbo lamniferus Reeve, 1848
  • Turbo folicaeus Philippi, 1847: synonym of Turbo lamniferus Reeve, 1848
  • Turbo fortispiralis Kreipl & Alf, 2003: synonym of Turbo smithi G.B. Sowerby III, 1886
  • Turbo granoliratus G.B. Sowerby III, 1908: synonym of Turbo moluccensis Philippi, 1846
  • Turbo granulata (Röding, 1798): synonym of Turbo castanea Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo granulosus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Turbo granulatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo helicinus Phipps, 1774: synonym of Margarites helicinus (Phipps, 1774)
  • Turbo helicoides Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Separatista helicoides (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo hemprichii Troschel, 1849: synonym of Lunella coronata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo henicus Watson, 1885: synonym of Bolma henica (Watson, 1885)
  • Turbo heteroclitus Kiener, 1847: synonym of Turbo torquatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo hippocastanum Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Turbo castanea Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo humerosa Smith, 1901: synonym of Turbo petholatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo imbricatus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Turritella imbricata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo indistinctus Montagu, 1808: synonym of Parthenina indistincta (Montagu, 1808)
  • Turbo interstinctus J. Adams, 1797: synonym of Chrysallida interstincta (J. Adams, 1797)
  • Turbo irroratus Say, 1822: synonym of Littoraria irrorata (Say, 1822)
  • Turbo japonicus Reeve, 1848: synonym of Turbo cornutus Lightfoot, 1786
  • Turbo jungi Lai, 2006: synonym of Lunella jungi (Lai, 2006)
  • Turbo lacteus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Turbonilla lactea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo laetus Montrouzier in Souverbie & Montrouzier, 1863: synonym of Collonia granulosa Pease, 1868
  • Turbo laevis Pennant, 1777: synonym of Melanella alba (da Costa, 1778)
  • Turbo lamellosus Philippi, 1846: synonym of Turbo lamniferus Reeve, 1848
  • Turbo lamellosus Broderip, 1831: synonym of Lunella torquata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo lapidifera Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo radiatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo litoreus [sic]: synonym of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo ludus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Lunella undulata (Lightfoot, 1786)
  • Turbo lugubris Reeve, 1848: synonym of Lunella cinerea (Born, 1778)
  • Turbo lugubris Kiener, 1847: synonym of Lunella ogasawarana Nakano, Takashashi & Ozawa, 2007
  • Turbo martinii W. Wood, 1828: synonym of Amaea martinii (W. Wood, 1828)
  • Turbo menkei Thiele, 1930: synonym of Turbo haynesi (Preston, 1914)
  • Turbo mespilus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Turbo imperialis Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo mitzschii Anton, 1838: synonym of Turbo saxosus W. Wood, 1828
  • Turbo modestus Philippi, 1847: synonym of Lunella coronata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo muricatus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Cenchritis muricatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo muricatus Nowell-Usticke, 1959: synonym of Turbo castanea Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo naninus Souverbie in Souverbie & Montrouzier, 1864: synonym of Leptothyra nanina (Souverbie in Souverbie & Montrouzier, 1864)
  • Turbo natalensis Krauss, 1848: synonym of Turbo cidaris natalensis (Krauss, 1848)
  • Turbo necnivosus Iredale, 1929: synonym of Turbo smithi G.B. Sowerby III, 1886
  • Turbo neritiformis Brown, 1827: synonym of Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo neritoides Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo nicobaricus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Chrysostoma paradoxum (Born, 1778)
  • Turbo niger W. Wood, 1828: synonym of Prisogaster niger (W. Wood, 1828)
  • Turbo nigerrimus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Diloma nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo nitidissima Montagu, 1803: synonym of Ebala nitidissima (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo nitzschii Anton, 1839: synonym of Turbo saxosus W. Wood, 1828
  • Turbo nivosa Reeve, 1848: synonym of Turbo tuberculosus Quoy & Gaimard, 1834
  • Turbo nivosus Montagu, 1803: synonym of Chrysallida nivosa (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo obligatus Say, 1822: synonym of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)
  • Turbo obscura Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo petholatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo obscurus Couthouy, 1838: synonym of Solariella obscura (Couthouy, 1838)
  • Turbo obsoletus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Turritella exoleta (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo obtusatus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo olearius Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Turbo marmoratus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo palliatus Say, 1822: synonym of Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo papyraceus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Pseudostomatella papyracea (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo parvulus Philippi, 1849: synonym of Turbo smithi G.B. Sowerby III, 1886
  • Turbo peloritanus Cantraine, 1835: synonym of Cantrainea peloritana (Cantraine, 1835)
  • Turbo permundus Iredale, 1929: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus argyrostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo pethiolatus Swainson, 1840: synonym of Turbo sarmaticus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo phasianellus Deshayes, 1863: synonym of Calliotrochus marmoreus (Pease, 1861)
  • Turbo picta Röding, 1798: synonym of Lunella cinerea (Born, 1778)
  • Turbo pileolum Reeve, 1842: synonym of Astralium pileolum (Reeve, 1842)
  • Turbo politus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Melanella polita (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo ponsonbyi Sowerby III, 1897: synonym of Bothropoma ponsonbyi (Sowerby, 1897)
  • Turbo porcatus Reeve, 1848: synonym of Lunella cinerea (Born, 1778)
  • Turbo porphyrites Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Lunella cinerea (Born, 1778)
  • Turbo porphyrites [sic, porphyria]: synonym of Turbo petholatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo princeps Philippi, 1846: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus argyrostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo psittacinus Philippi, 1846: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus argyrostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo pulcher (Rehder, 1943): synonym of Turbo haraldi Robertson, 1957
  • Turbo pulcher Reeve, 1842: synonym of Turbo kenwilliamsi Williams, 2008
  • Turbo pullus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Tricolia pullus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo pumiceus Brocchi, 1814: synonym of Cirsotrema cochlea (G. B. Sowerby II, 1844)
  • Turbo punctatus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Echinolittorina punctata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo punctura Montagu, 1803: synonym of Alvania punctura (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo pustulata Reeve, 1843: synonym of Turbo squamiger Reeve, 1843
  • Turbo pustulatus Reeve, 1848: synonym of Turbo squamiger Reeve, 1843
  • Turbo pyropus Reeve, 1848: synonym of Yaronia pyropus (Reeve, 1848)
  • Turbo radiatus Reeve, 1848: synonym of Turbo intercostalis Menke, 1846
  • Turbo radina Webster, 1905: synonym of Turbo smaragdus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo retusus Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo rubicundus Chemnitz: synonym of Turbo granosus (Martyn, 1784)
  • Turbo rudis Maton, 1797: synonym of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)
  • Turbo rudissimus Johnston, 1842: synonym of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)
  • Turbo rugosus Linnaeus, 1767: synonym of Bolma rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767)
  • Turbo sangarensis Schrenck, 1861: synonym of Homalopoma sangarense (Schrenck, 1861)
  • Turbo sanguineum Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Homalopoma sanguineum (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo scabrosus Preston, 1914: synonym of Turbo lamniferus Reeve, 1848
  • Turbo scalaris Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Epitonium scalare (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo semicostatus Pease, 1861: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus argyrostomus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo semicostatus Montagu, 1803: synonym of Onoba semicostata (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo separatista Dillwyn, 1817: synonym of Separatista helicoides (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo seruiensis Smits & Moolenbeek, 1995: synonym of Turbo moluccensis Philippi, 1846
  • Turbo shandi Hutton, 1873: synonym of Turbo granosus (Martyn, 1784)
  • Turbo shepeianus J. Adams, 1798: synonym of Onoba semicostata (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo siamea Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo cornutus Lightfoot, 1786
  • Turbo siculus Brugnone, 1850: synonym of Echinolittorina punctata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo smaragdus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Lunella smaragdus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo somnueki Patamakanthin, 2001: synonym of Turbo tursicus (Reeve, 1843)
  • Turbo speciosa Mühlfeld, 1824: synonym of Tricolia speciosa (Mühlfeld, 1824)
  • Turbo speciosus Reeve, 1848: synonym of Turbo argyrostomus perspeciosus (Iredale, 1929)
  • Turbo spenglerianus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Turbo canaliculatus Hermann, 1781
  • Turbo spinosus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Turbo radiatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo spiralis Montagu, 1803: synonym of Chrysallida pellucida (Dillwyn, 1817)
  • Turbo splendidulus G.B. Sowerby III, 1886: synonym of Turbo laetus Philippi, 1849
  • Turbo squamosa Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo bruneus (Röding, 1798)
  • Turbo squamosus J.E. Gray, 1847: synonym of Turbo lamniferus Reeve, 1848
  • Turbo stamineus Martyn, 1784: synonym of Turbo torquatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo stellaris Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Astralium stellare (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo striatus J. Adams, 1797: synonym of Onoba semicostata (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo subcastaneus Pilsbry, 1888: synonym of Turbo squamiger Reeve, 1843
  • Turbo subulatus Donovan, 1804: synonym of Eulima glabra (da Costa, 1778)
  • Turbo sulcatus Woodward, 1833: synonym of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo sulcatus Leach, 1852: synonym of Littorina compressa Jeffreys, 1865
  • Turbo taylorianus E.A. Smith, 1880: synonym of Bolma tayloriana (E. A. Smith, 1880)
  • Turbo terebellum Dillwyn, 1817: synonym of Niso terebellum (Dillwyn, 1817)
  • Turbo terebra Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Turritella terebra (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo tessellatus Kiener, 1848: synonym of Turbo fluctuosus W. Wood, 1828
  • Turbo torcularis Born, 1778: synonym of Turritella exoleta (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo torquatus Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Lunella torquata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo tricarinulatus Euthyme, 1885: synonym of Turbo cidaris cidaris Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo tricostatus Hutton, 1884: synonym of Lunella smaragdus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo trifasciata J. Adams, 1800: synonym of Cingula cingillus (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo trochiformis Born, 1778: synonym of Trochita trochiformis (Born, 1778)
  • Turbo trochoides Reeve, 1848: synonym of Lunella coronata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo tuberculata Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo squamiger Reeve, 1843
  • Turbo tuberculatus Kiener, 1847: synonym of Turbo radiatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo tumidulus Reeve, 1848: synonym of Turbo radiatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo turbinopsis Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Turbo lamniferus Reeve, 1848
  • Turbo turriformis Preston, 1914: synonym of Turbo lamniferus Reeve, 1848
  • Turbo turtonis Turton, 1819: synonym of Epitonium turtonis (Turton, 1819)
  • Turbo undulata Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo marmoratus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo undulatus Lightfoot, 1786: synonym of Lunella undulata (Lightfoot, 1786)
  • Turbo ungulinus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Turritella ungulina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo ustulatus Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo variegatus Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Turritella variegata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo ventricosus Woodward, 1833: synonym of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turbo venustus Philippi, 1845: synonym of Turbo saxosus W. Wood, 1828
  • Turbo verconis Iredale, 1937: synonym of Turbo jourdani Kiener, 1839
  • Turbo vericulum Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo setosus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo vermicularis Brocchi, 1814: synonym of Turritella vermicularis (Brocchi, 1814)
  • Turbo versicolor Nowell-Usticke, 1959: synonym of Turbo castanea Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo versicolor Gmelin, 1791: synonym of Lunella cinerea (Born, 1778)
  • Turbo virens Anton, 1839: synonym of Turbo castanea Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo viridana Röding, 1798: synonym of Lunella coronata (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Turbo viridicallus (Jousseaume, 1898): synonym of Lunella viridicallus (Jousseaume, 1898)
  • Turbo vitreus Montagu, 1803: synonym of Hyala vitrea (Montagu, 1803)
  • Turbo zebra Wood, 1828: synonym of Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Turbo zebra Donovan, 1825: synonym of Littoraria zebra (Donovan, 1825)
  • Turbo zetlandicus Montagu, 1815: synonym of Alvinia zetlandica Montagu, 1815

The following species are nomina nuda (names not published with an adequate description):[2]

  • Turbo curvatus Chiereghini MS, Brusina, 1870 (nomen nudum)

The following species are alternate representation:[2]

  • Turbo setosus Gmelin, 1843 represented as Turbo setosus Gmelin, 1791 (alternate representation)

The following species are nomina dubia (names of unknown or doubtful application):[2]

  • Turbo articulatus Reeve, 1848 (nomen dubium)
  • Turbo concinnus Philippi, 1846 (nomen dubium)
  • Turbo crellenus Linnaeus, 1758 (nomen dubium)
  • Turbo disjunctus Anton, 1838 (nomen dubium)
  • Turbo elegans Philippi, 1846 (nomen dubium)
  • Turbo margaritaceus Linnaeus, 1758 (nomen dubium)
  • Turbo pustulatus Brocchi, 1821 (nomen dubium)
  • Turbo variabilis Reeve, 1842 (nomen dubium)

Human uses

Turbo shells are a favorite choice of shells for Coenobita clypeatus, the Caribbean hermit crab or "purple pincher" as it is known in the pet trade.

Turbo cornutus, common name the "horned turban", is an expensive food item in Korea, and Japan, where they are known as sazae.

The attractively colored operculum of at least two different Turbo species has been used for various decorative purposes, including in jewelry and buttons. These opercula are sometimes known as "cat's eyes".

References

  • Alf A., Kreipl K. & Poppe G. T. (2003) The Family Turbinidae, Subfamily Turbininae, Genus Turbo. In: Poppe G. T. & Groh K. (eds.): A Conchological Iconography: 68 pp., 95 colour plates, ConchBooks, Hackenheim, ISBN 3-925919-27-9.
  • Williams, S.T. (2007). Origins and diversification of Indo-West Pacific marine fauna: evolutionary history and biogeography of turban shells (Gastropoda, Turbinidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 92, 573–592.
  • Williams S. (2008) The calcareous operculum as a character for defining subgenera in the marine gastropod genus Turbo. Vita Malacologica 7: 1-13. [16 December 2008]
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