United Arab Emirates government

United Arab Emirates
دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة
Dawlat al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabiyyah al-Muttaḥidah
Flag Emblem
Anthem: "Ishy Bilady"
"Long Live My Nation"
Capital Abu Dhabi
Largest city Dubai
Official languages Arabic
Ethnic groups (2009[1][2])
Demonym Emirati [1]
Government Federal hereditary absolute monarchy
 -  President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
 -  Prime Minister Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Legislature Federal National Council
 -  from the United Kingdom 2 December 1971 
 -  Total 83,600d km2 (116th)
32,278 sq mi
 -  Water (%) negligible
 -  2013 estimate 9,346,129[3] (93rd)
 -  2005 census 4,106,427
 -  Density 99/km2 (110th)
256/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $570.6 billion[4] (32th)
 -  Per capita $30,984[4] (32nd)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $412.350 billion[4] (28th)
 -  Per capita $44,330[4] (19th)
Gini (2008) 36
HDI (2013) [5]
very high · 40th
Currency UAE dirham (AED)
Time zone GST (UTC+4)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+4)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +971
ISO 3166 code AE
Internet TLD
a. Predominantly Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi people.
b. Predominantly Chinese, Filipino, Thai, Iranian, South Korean and Afghani (Pashtun) people.
c. Seven emirates and one advisory body.
d. The country's exact size is unknown because of disputed claims to several islands in the Persian Gulf, the lack of precise information on the size of many of these islands and that most of its land boundaries, especially those with Saudi Arabia, remain un-demarcated.

The United Arab Emirates (Arabic: دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدةDawlat al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabiyyah al-Muttaḥidah), sometimes simply called the Emirates or the UAE,[note 1] is a country located in the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing sea borders with Qatar and Iran. In 2013, the UAE's total population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates from around the world.[6][7]

Established on 2 December 1971, the country is a federation of seven emirates (equivalent to principalities). Each emirate is governed by a hereditary ruler who jointly form the Federal Supreme Council, the highest legislative and executive body in the country. One of the rulers is selected as the President of the United Arab Emirates. The constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi (which serves as the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain. Islam is the official religion of the UAE, and Arabic is the official language.[8] Its most populous city, Dubai, has emerged as a business hub and a global city.[9]

The UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world,[10] while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest.[11] The late Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare, education and infrastructure.[12] The UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, with Dubai in particular developing into a global hub for tourism, retail, and finance. Nevertheless, the country remains extremely reliant on petroleum and natural gas; more than 85% of the economy was based on the oil exports in 2009,[1][13] while oil exports accounted for 77% of the state budget in 2011.[14]

The UAE's rapid economic growth and rising international profile have led some analysts to identify it as a middle power.[15][16]


Ancient history

The earliest known human habitation in the UAE dated from 5500 BC, but finds of flint tools could date the first human habitation of the UAE's western coast to 130,000 years ago.[17] At this early stage, there is proof of interaction with the outside world, particularly with civilizations to the northwest in Mesopotamia. These contacts persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3000 BC.[18] In 637, Julfar (today Ra's al-Khaimah) was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of Sassanian Iran.[19] From the second century AD, a movement of tribes along the North East along the southern coast of Arabia took place, with groups of the Azdite Qahtani (or Yamani) and Quda'ah occupying the areas south west of the Hajar Mountains while Sassanid groups dominated the Eastern or Batinah coast. With the Persian coast known as Al Bahreyn, the interior oasis town of Al Ain was known as Tu'am and became an important staging post of the trade routes to the interior from the east coast.[20]

The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD.[21] It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50-350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John - the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD.[22]

The spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Prophet Muhammad to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah, led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sassanids, who dominated the Northern coasts at the time.[23]

Following the death of the Prophet, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory (the Ridda Wars) with the bloody battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost.[24]

17th century-19th century

The harsh nature of the territory, dominated by arid desert, gravel plains and mountain, led to the emergence of the 'versatile tribesman', nomadic groups who subsisted thanks to a variety of economic activities, including animal husbandry, agriculture and hunting. The seasonal movements of these groups led both to frequent clashes between groups but also the establishment of seasonal and semi-seasonal settlements and centres. These formed tribal groupings whose names are still carried by modern Emiratis, including the Bani Yas and Al Bu Falah of Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Liwa and the Al Bahrayn coast, the Dhawahir, Awamir and Manasir of the interior, the Sharqiyin of the east coast and the Qawasim to the North.[25]

By the 17th century, the Bani Yas confederation was the dominant force in most of the area now known as Abu Dhabi.[26][27][28]

The Portuguese maintained an influence over the coastal settlements, building forts in the wake of the bloody 16th century conquests of coastal communities by Albuquerque and the Portuguese commanders who followed him - particularly on the east coast at Muscat, Sohar and Khor Fakkan.[29]

The southern coast of the Persian Gulf was known to the British as the "Pirate Coast", as boats of the Al Qawasim (Al Qasimi) federation based in the area harassed British-flagged shipping from the 17th century into the 19th.[30] British expeditions to protect the Indian trade from raiders at Ras al-Khaimah led to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the coast in 1809 and subsequently 1819. The following year, Britain and a number of local rulers signed a treaty to combat piracy along the Persian Gulf coast, giving rise to the term Trucial States, which came to define the status of the coastal emirates. Further treaties were signed in 1843 and 1853.

Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, namely France and Russia, the British and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the British with other Persian Gulf principalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the British and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the British without its consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack.This treaty, the Exclusive Agreement, was signed by the Rulers of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain between 6 and 8 March 1892. It was subsequently ratified by the Viceroy of India and the British Government in London.[31] British maritime policing meant that pearling fleets could operate in relative security. However, the British prohibition of the slave trade meant an important source of income was lost to some sheikhs and merchants.[32] The charge of piracy is disputed by modern Emirati historians, including the current Ruler of Sharjah in his 1986 book 'The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf'.[33]

British rule, oil industry

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the pearling industry thrived, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulf. The First World War had a severe impact on the industry, but it was the economic depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, coupled with the Japanese invention of the cultured pearl, that wiped out the trade. The remnants of the trade eventually faded away shortly after the Second World War, when the newly independent Government of India imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The decline of pearling resulted in extreme economic hardship in the trucial states.[34]

Dubai in the mid-20th century; the area in this photo now corresponds to the Al Ras and Al Shindagha localities of present-day Dubai.

The British set up a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates. The seven sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. In 1952, they formed the Trucial States Council,[35] and appointed Adi Bitar, Sheikh Rashid's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed.[36] The tribal nature of society and the lack of definition of borders between emirates frequently led to disputes, settled either through mediation or, more rarely, force. The Trucial Oman Scouts was a small military force used by the British to keep the peace.

In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter's dispute with Oman over the Buraimi Oasis, another territory to the south.[37] A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute; however, the agreement has yet to be ratified by the UAE government and is not recognised by the Saudi government. The UAE's border with Oman was ratified in 2008.[38]

The development of the oil industry in the 1960s transformed the fortunes of Abu Dhabi and later Dubai. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan became ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1966 and embarked on a massive modernisation drive. The British started losing their oil investments and contracts to U.S. oil exploration and production companies.[39]

In 1922 the British government secured undertakings from the trucial rulers not to sign concessions with foreign companies. Aware of the potential for the development of natural resources such as oil, following finds in Persia (from 1908) and Mesopotamia (from 1927), a British-led oil company, the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC) showed an interest in the region. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC, later to become British Petroleum, or BP), had a 23.75 percent share in IPC. From 1935, onshore concessions to explore for oil were agreed with local rulers, with APOC signing the first one on behalf of Petroleum Concessions Ltd (PCL), an associate company of IPC.[40] APOC was prevented from developing the region alone because of the restrictions of the Red Line Agreement, which required it to operate through IPC. A number of options between PCL and the trucial rulers were signed, providing useful revenue for communities experiencing poverty following the collapse of the pearl trade. However, the wealth of oil which the rulers could see from the revenues accruing to surrounding countries such as Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia remained elusive. The first bore holes in Abu Dhabi were drilled by IPC's operating company, Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd (PDTC) at Ras Sadr in 1950, with a 13,000 feet deep bore hole taking a year to drill and turning out dry, at the tremendous cost at the time of £1 million.

In 1953, a subsidiary of BP, D'Arcy Exploration Ltd, obtained an offshore concession from the ruler of Abu Dhabi. BP joined with Compagnie Française des Pétroles (later Total) to form operating companies, Abu Dhabi Marine Areas Ltd (ADMA) and Dubai Marine Areas Ltd (DUMA). A number of undersea oil surveys were carried out, including one led by the famous marine explorer, Jacques Cousteau.[41] In 1958, a floating platform rig was towed from Hamburg, Germany, and positioned over the Umm Shaif pearl bed, in Abu Dhabi waters, where drilling began. In March, it struck oil in the Upper Thamama, a rock formation that would provide many valuable oil finds. This was the first commercial discovery of the Trucial Coast, leading to the first exports of oil in 1962. ADMA made further offshore discoveries at Zakum and elsewhere, and other companies made commercial finds such as the Fateh oilfield off Dubai, and the Mubarak field off Sharjah (shared with Iran).[42]

Meanwhile, PDTC had continued its onshore exploration activities, drilling five more bore holes that were also dry, but on 27 October 1960, the company discovered oil in commercial quantities at the Murban No. 3 well on the coast near Tarif.[43] In 1962, PDTC became the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company.

As oil revenues increased, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads. When Dubai's oil exports commenced in 1969, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai, was able to invest the revenues from the limited reserves found to spark the diversification drive that would create the modern global city of Dubai.[44]

Independence (1971)

Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was the first President of UAE.

By 1966 it had become clear the British government could no longer afford to administer and protect what is now the United Arab Emirates. British MPs debated the preparedness of the Royal Navy to defend the trucial sheikhdoms. Secretary of State for Defence Denis Healey reported that the British Armed Forces were seriously overstretched and in some respects dangerously under-equipped to defend the trucial sheikhdoms. On 24 January 1968, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced the government's decision, reaffirmed in March 1971 by Prime Minister Edward Heath to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial sheikhdoms that had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. Days after the announcement, the ruler of Abu Dhabi Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, fearing vulnerability, tried to persuade the British to honour the protection treaties by offering to pay the full costs of keeping the British Armed Forces in the Emirates. The British Labour government rejected the offer.[45] After Labour MP Goronwy Roberts informed Sheikh Zayed of the news of British withdrawal, the nine Persian Gulf sheikhdoms attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid-1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year.[46]

Bahrain became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on 1 December 1971, they became fully independent.[47] The rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to form a union between their two emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them the opportunity to join. It was also agreed between the two that the constitution be written by 2 December 1971.[48] On that date, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace, four other emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Bahrain and Qatar declined their invitations to join the union. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, in early 1972.[49][50] In February 1972, the Federal National Council (FNC) was created; it was a 40 member consultative body appointed by the seven rulers.The UAE joined the Arab League in 1971. It was a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council in May 1981, with Abu Dhabi hosting the first summit. UAE forces joined the allies against Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait in 1990.

After independence

View of Sharjah city

The UAE supported military operations from the US and other Coalition nations that are engaged in the war against the Taliban in Afghanistan (2001) and Saddam Hussein in Iraq (2003) as well as operations supporting the Global War on Terror for the Horn of Africa at Al Dhafra Air Base located outside of Abu Dhabi. The air base also supported Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch. The country had already signed a military defense agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995.[51][52] In January 2008, France and the UAE signed a deal allowing France to set up a permanent military base in the emirate of Abu Dhabi.[53] The UAE joined international military operations in Libya in March 2011.

On 2 November 2004, the UAE's first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. His eldest son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, succeeded as Emir of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi.[54] In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and the crown prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum assumed both roles.

The first-ever national elections were held in the UAE on 16 December 2006. A small number of hand-picked voters chose half of the members of the Federal National Council—which is an advisory body. Largely unaffected by the Arab Spring turmoil, the government has nonetheless clamped down on Internet activism.[55] In April 2011, five activists who signed an online petition calling for reforms were imprisoned. They were pardoned and released in November. Since March 2012 more than 60 activists (later showed evidence of being moved by Iran to create chaos) have been detained without charge (at the time) – some of them supporters of the Islah Islamic group. A member of the ruling family in Ras al-Khaimah was put under house arrest in April 2012 after calling for political openness. Mindful of the protests in nearby Bahrain, in November 2012 the UAE outlawed online mockery of its own government or attempts to organise public protests through social media.[12]


Map of the United Arab Emirates
A view of the desert landscape on the outskirts of Dubai

The United Arab Emirates is situated in Southwest Asia, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia; it is in a strategic location along southern approaches to the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil.[56]

The UAE lies between 22°30' and 26°10' north latitude and between 51° and 56°25′ east longitude. It shares a 530-kilometer border with Saudi Arabia on the west, south, and southeast, and a 450-kilometer border with Oman on the southeast and northeast. The land border with Qatar in the Khawr al Udayd area is about nineteen kilometers (12 miles) in the northwest; however, it is a source of ongoing dispute.[57] Following Britain's military departure from UAE in 1971, and its establishment as a new state, the UAE laid claim to islands resulting in disputes with Iran that remain unresolved. UAE also disputes claim on other islands against the neighboring state of Qatar.[58] The largest emirate, Abu Dhabi, accounts for 87% of the UAE's total area (67,340 square kilometres (26,000 sq mi)). The smallest emirate, Ajman, encompasses only 259 km2 (100 sq mi)(see figure).

The UAE coast stretches for more than 650 km (404 mi) along the southern shore of the Persian Gulf. Most of the coast consists of salt pans that extend far inland. The largest natural harbor is at Dubai, although other ports have been dredged at Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, and elsewhere. Numerous islands are found in the Persian Gulf, and the ownership of some of them has been the subject of international disputes with both Iran and Qatar. The smaller islands, as well as many coral reefs and shifting sandbars, are a menace to navigation. Strong tides and occasional windstorms further complicate ship movements near the shore. The UAE also has a stretch of the Al Bāţinah coast of the Gulf of Oman, although the Musandam Peninsula, the very tip of Arabia by the Strait of Hormuz is an exclave of Oman separated by the UAE.

South and west of Abu Dhabi, vast, rolling sand dunes merge into the Rub al-Khali (Empty Quarter) of Saudi Arabia. The desert area of Abu Dhabi includes two important oases with adequate underground water for permanent settlements and cultivation.[59] The extensive Liwa Oasis is in the south near the undefined border with Saudi Arabia. About 100 km (62 mi) to the northeast of Liwa is the Al-Buraimi oasis, which extends on both sides of the Abu Dhabi-Oman border. Lake Zakher is a man-made lake near the border with Oman.

Prior to withdrawing from the area in 1971, Britain delineated the internal borders among the seven emirates in order to preempt territorial disputes that might hamper formation of the federation. In general, the rulers of the emirates accepted the British intervention, but in the case of boundary disputes between Abu Dhabi and Dubai, and also between Dubai and Sharjah, conflicting claims were not resolved until after the UAE became independent. The most complicated borders were in the Al-Hajar al-Gharbi Mountains, where five of the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves.

Flora and fauna

Acacia trees growing in desert suburbs near Fujairah

The oases grow date palms, acacia and eucalyptus trees. In the desert, the flora is very sparse and consists of grasses and thorn bushes. The indigenous fauna had come close to extinction because of intensive hunting, which has led to a conservation program on Bani Yas Island initiated by Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan in the 1970s, resulting in the survival of, for example, Arabian oryx and leopards. Coastal fish and mammals consist mainly of mackerel, perch, and tuna, as well as sharks and whales.


The climate of the U.A.E is subtropical-arid with hot summers and warm winters. The hottest months are July and August, when average maximum temperatures reach above 45 °C (113 °F) on the coastal plain. In the Al Hajar Mountains, temperatures are considerably lower, a result of increased elevation.[60] Average minimum temperatures in January and February are between 10 and 14 °C (50 and 57 °F).[61] During the late summer months, a humid southeastern wind known as Sharqi (i.e. "Easterner") makes the coastal region especially unpleasant. The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is less than 120 mm (4.7 in), but in some mountainous areas annual rainfall often reaches 350 mm (13.8 in). Rain in the coastal region falls in short, torrential bursts during the summer months, sometimes resulting in floods in ordinarily dry wadi beds.[62] The region is prone to occasional, violent dust storms, which can severely reduce visibility. The Jebel Jais mountain cluster in Ras al-Khaimah has experienced snow only twice since records began.[63]


The UAE is ruled by the federal court system. There are three main branches within the court structure: civil, criminal and Sharia law.

Sharia law

The UAE's judicial system is derived from the civil law system and Sharia law. The court system consists of civil courts and Sharia courts. According to Human Rights Watch, UAE's criminal and civil courts apply elements of Sharia law, codified into its criminal code and family law, in a way which discriminates against women.[64]

Flogging is a legal punishment for criminal offences such as adultery, premarital sex, drug abuse and prostitution.[65] In all emirates except Dubai, flogging is legal with sentences ranging from 80 to 200 lashes.[66][67] Between 2007 and 2013, many people were sentenced to 100 lashes.[65][68][69][70][71][72][73][74] In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public.[75] Moreover in 2010 and 2012, several Muslims were sentenced to 80 lashes for alcohol consumption.[76][77] An Estonian soldier in 2004 was sentenced to 40 lashes for being drunk.[78] In some cases, people have been sentenced to 60 lashes for illicit sex.[79][80][81] Under UAE law, premarital sex is punishable by 100 lashes.[82]

Stoning is a legal form of judicial punishment in the UAE. In 2006, an expatriate was sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery.[83] Between 2009 and 2013, several people were sentenced to death by stoning.[71][84][85] In May 2014, an Asian housemaid was sentenced to death by stoning in Abu Dhabi.[86][87][88]

Sharia law dictates the personal status law, which regulate matters such as marriage, divorce and child custody. The Sharia-based personal status law is applied to Muslims and sometimes non-Muslims.[89] Non-Muslim expatriates are liable to Sharia rulings on marriage, divorce and child custody.[89] Sharia courts have exclusive jurisdiction to hear family disputes, including matters involving divorce, inheritances, child custody, child abuse and guardianship of minors. Sharia courts may also hear appeals of certain criminal cases including rape, robbery, driving under the influence of alcohol and related crimes.[90]

Apostasy is a crime punishable by death in the UAE.[91][92] UAE incorporates hudud crimes of Sharia into its Penal Code – apostasy being one of them.[93] Article 1 and Article 66 of UAE's Penal Code requires hudud crimes to be punished with the death penalty,[93][94] therefore apostasy is punishable by death in the UAE.

Emirati women must receive permission from male guardian to remarry.[95] The requirement is derived from Sharia, and has been federal law since 2005.[95] In all emirates, it is illegal for Muslim women to marry non-Muslims.[96] In the UAE, a marriage union between a Muslim woman and non-Muslim man is punishable by law, since it is considered a form of "fornication".[96]

Kissing in public is illegal and can result in deportation.[97] Expats in Dubai have been deported for kissing in public.[98][99][100] In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public.[101]

Homosexuality is illegal: the death penalty is one of the punishments for homosexuality.[102] Article 80 of the Abu Dhabi Penal Code makes sodomy punishable with imprisonment of up to 14 years, while article 177 of the Penal Code of Dubai imposes imprisonment of up to 10 years on consensual sodomy.[103]

Amputation is a legal punishment in the UAE due to the Sharia courts.[104][105][106][107][108] Article 1 of the Federal Penal Code states that "provisions of the Islamic Law shall apply to the crimes of doctrinal punishment, punitive punishment and blood money."[109] The Federal Penal Code repealed only those provisions within the penal codes of individual emirates which are contradictory to the Federal Penal Code. Hence, both are enforceable simultaneously.[110]

During the month of Ramadan, it is illegal to publicly eat, drink, or smoke between sunrise and sunset. Exceptions are made for pregnant women and children. The law applies to both Muslims and non-Muslims, and failure to comply may result in arrest.[111]

Human rights

The treatment of migrant workers in the UAE has been likened to "modern-day slavery".[112] Migrant workers are excluded from the UAE's collective labour rights, hence migrants are vulnerable to forced labour. Migrant workers in the UAE are not allowed to join trade unions.[113] Moreover, migrant workers are banned from going on strike.[113][114] Dozens of workers were deported in 2014 for going on strike.[115] As migrant workers do not have the right to join a trade union or go on strike, they don’t have the means to denounce the exploitation they suffer. Those who protest risk prison and deportation.[113] The International Trade Union Confederation has called on the United Nations to investigate evidence that thousands of migrant workers in the UAE are treated as slave labour.[116]

Human Rights Watch have drawn attention to the mistreatment of migrant workers who have been turned into debt-ridden de facto indentured servants[117] following their arrival in the UAE. Confiscation of passports, although illegal, occurs on a large scale, primarily from unskilled or semi-skilled employees.[118] Labourers often toil in intense heat with temperatures reaching 40–50 degrees Celsius in the cities in August. Although attempts have been made since 2009 to enforce a midday break rule, these are frequently flouted. Those labourers who do receive a midday break often have no suitable place to rest and tend to seek relief in bus or taxi stands and gardens.[119] Initiatives taken have brought about a huge impact on the conditions of the laborers. According to Human Rights Watch, migrant workers in Dubai live in "inhumane" conditions.

Flogging and stoning are legal punishments in the UAE. The UAE has not ratified the UN Convention on the elimination of cruel, degrading and inhuman torture. Some laws continue to discriminate Emirati women. Emirati women must receive permission from a "male guardian" to remarry.[95] The requirement is derived from Sharia law, and has been federal law since 2005.[95] Some women in UAE are victims of Sharia-derived judicial punishments such as flogging and stoning.

In 2007, the UAE government attempted to cover up information on the rape of Alexandre Robert, a 15 year old French-Swiss national, by three Emirati locals, one of whose HIV-positive status was hidden by Emirati authorities for several months.[120]

In April 2009, a video tape of torture smuggled out of the UAE showed Sheikh Issa bin Zayed Al Nahyan torturing a man (Mohammed Shah Poor) with whips, electric cattle prods, wooden planks with protruding nails and running him over repeatedly with a car.[121] In December 2009 Issa appeared in court and proclaimed his innocence.[122] The trial ended on 10 January 2010, when Issa was cleared of the torture of Mohammed Shah Poor.[123] Human Rights Watch criticised the trial and called on the government to establish an independent body to investigate allegations of abuse by UAE security personnel and other persons of authority.[124]

The US State Department has expressed concern over the verdict and said all members of Emirati society "must stand equal before the law" and called for a careful review of the decision to ensure that the demands of justice are fully met in this case.[125]

Rape victims are often criminalized in the UAE.[126] The Emirates Center for Human Rights expressed concern over Dubai's criminalization of rape victims.[127] In Dubai, a woman who reports being raped can be sentenced to over a year of time in prison for "engaging in extramarital relations" if there is no evidence that she was raped.[127] The Emirates Center for Human Rights states that "Until laws are reformed, victims of sexual violence in the UAE will continue to suffer," referring to a case in July 2013 in which a 24 year old Norwegian woman, Marte Dalelv, reported an alleged rape to the police and received a prison sentence for "perjury, consensual extramarital sex and alcohol consumption".[127][128][129]

In 2012, Dubai police subjected three British citizens to beatings and electric shocks after arresting them on drugs charges.[130] The British Prime Minister, David Cameron, expressed “concern” over the case and raised it with the UAE President, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, during his 2013 state visit to the UK.[131] The three men – Grant Cameron (no relation to the British PM), Suneet Jeerh, and Karl Williams – were pardoned and released in July 2013.[132]

The annual Freedom House report on Freedom in the World has listed the United Arab Emirates as "Not Free" every year since 1999 (the first year for which records are available on their website).[133] Freedom House have also condemned the UAE for imprisoning human rights defenders.[134]

In its 2013 Annual Report, Amnesty International drew attention to the United Arab Emirates' poor record on a number of human rights issues. They highlighted the government's restrictive approach to freedom of speech and assembly, their use of arbitrary arrest and torture, and UAE's significant use of the death penalty.[135]

In July 2013, a video was uploaded onto YouTube, depicting a local driver hitting an expatriate worker, following a road related incident. Using part of his head gear, the local driver whips the expatriate and also taunts him, before other passers-by intervene. A short while later, Dubai police announced that the person who filmed the video had been taken into custody. It was also revealed that the local driver was a senior UAE government official.[136] Later in 2013, police arrested a US citizen and some UAE citizens, in connection with a YouTube parody video which allegedly portrayed Dubai and its residents in a bad light. The video was shot in areas of Satwa, Dubai and featured gangs learning how to fight using simple weapons, including shoes, the aghal, etc.[137]

UAE has organizations promoting human rights, such as the Dubai Women's and Children's Foundation, Ewaa in Abu Dhabi, Human Rights Care Department in Dubai and the Social Support Centre in Abu Dhabi .[138] The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic servants is another area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE labour law of 1980 or the draft labour law of 2007.[139] Worker protests have been suppressed and protesters imprisoned without due process.[140] Dubai police opened designated departments in all emirate police stations that are mandated to protect the human rights of victims and perpetrators of crime.[141]

UAE has escaped most of the effects of the Arab Spring; however, many UAE citizens were jailed and/or tortured because they heavily criticized the government system.[142][143] There were also foreign nationals who had their residency in the country revoked.[144] Human Rights Watch criticized the forced exile of UAE activist Ahmed Abdul Khaleq, calling the action an "unlawful expulsion" motivated by the government's desire to stifle dissent.[145] Amnesty International issued a statement that "Ahmed Abdul Khaleq should never have been forced to leave the country and this event sets alarm bells ringing regarding the fate of others held in the UAE in connection with alleged plots against state security".[146]


Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan is the President of the UAE and Ruler of Abu Dhabi
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum is the Prime Minister of UAE and Ruler of Dubai

The United Arab Emirates is a federation of hereditary absolute monarchies. It is governed by a Federal Supreme Council made up of the seven emirs of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Qaiwain. All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the emirates.[147] A percentage of revenues from each emirate is allocated to the UAE's central budget.[148]

Although elected by the Supreme Council, the presidency and prime ministership are essentially hereditary: The emir of Abu Dhabi holds the presidency, and the emir of Dubai is prime minister. All prime ministers but one have served concurrently as vice president. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was the UAE's president from the nation's founding until his death on 2 November 2004. On the following day the Federal Supreme Council elected his son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, to the post. Abu Dhabi's crown prince, Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, is the heir apparent.[149]

The UAE convened a half-elected Federal National Council in 2006. The FNC consists of 40 members drawn from all the emirates. Half are appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates, and the other half are indirectly elected to serve two-year terms. However, the FNC is restricted to a largely consultative role.[150] The UAE eGovernment is the extension of the UAE Federal Government in its electronic form.[151]

The UAE is frequently described as an "autocracy".[152][153][154] According to the New York Times, the UAE is “an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state”.[155] The UAE ranks poorly in freedom indices measuring civil liberties and political rights. The UAE is annually ranked as "Not Free" in Freedom House's annual Freedom in the World report, which measures civil liberties and political rights.[133] The UAE also ranks poorly in the annual Reporters without Borders' Press Freedom Index.

Foreign relations

The UAE has extensive diplomatic and commercial relations with other countries. It plays a significant role in OPEC and the UN, and is one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

The UAE was one of only three countries to recognise the Taliban as Afghanistan's legitimate government (Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were the other two countries).[156] The UAE maintained diplomatic relations with the Taliban until the September 11 attacks in 2001. The UAE has long maintained close relations with Egypt and remains the biggest investor in that country from the rest of the Arab world.[157] Pakistan had been first country to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners; about 400,000 Pakistani expatriates are employed in the UAE.[158]

The UAE spends more than any other country in the world to influence U.S. policy and shape domestic debate,[159] and it pays former high-level government officials who worked with it to carry out its agenda within the U.S.[159] The largest expatriate presence in the UAE is Indian.[160][161] Following British withdrawal from the UAE in 1971 and the establishment of the UAE as a state, the UAE disputed rights to a number of islands in the Persian Gulf against Iran. The UAE went so far as to bring the matter to the United Nations, but the case was dismissed.[162] The dispute has not significantly impacted relations because of the large Iranian community presence and strong economic ties.[163]

In its dispute with the USA and Israel, Iran has repeatedly threatened to close the strait at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, a vital oil-trade route.[12] Therefore, in July 2012, the UAE began operating a key overland oil pipeline which bypasses the Strait of Hormuz in order to mitigate any consequences of an Iranian shut-off.

Commercially, the UK and Germany are the UAE's largest export markets and bilateral relations have long been close as a large number of their nationals reside in the UAE.[164][165] Diplomatic relations between UAE and Japan were established as early as UAE's independence in December 1971.[166] The two countries had always enjoyed friendly ties and trade between each other. Exports from the UAE to Japan include crude oil and natural gas and imports from Japan to UAE include cars and electric items.[166]


France and the United States have played the most strategically significant roles with defense cooperation agreements and military material provision.[167] The UAE discussed with France the possibility of a purchase of 60 Rafale fighter aircraft in January 2013.[168] The UAE helped the U.S. launch its first air offensive against Islamic State targets in Syria.[169]

Political divisions

The United Arab Emirates is divided into seven emirates. Dubai is the most populated Emirate with 35.6% of the UAE population. The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has a further 31.2%, meaning that over two-thirds of the UAE population live in either Abu Dhabi or Dubai.

Abu Dhabi has an area of 67,340 square kilometres (26,000 square miles), which is 86.7% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. It has a coastline extending for more than 400 km (249 mi) and is divided for administrative purposes into three major regions. The Emirate of Dubai extends along the Persian Gulf coast of the UAE for approximately 72 km (45 mi). Dubai has an area of 3,885 square kilometres (1,500 square miles), which is equivalent to 5% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. The Emirate of Sharjah extends along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the UAE's Persian Gulf coastline and for more than 80 km (50 mi) into the interior. The northern emirates which include Fujairah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain all have a total area of 3,881 km2. There are two areas under joint control. One is jointly controlled by Oman and Ajman, the other by Fujairah and Sharjah.

There is an Omani exclave surrounded by UAE territory, known as Wadi Madha. It is located halfway between the Musandam peninsula and the rest of Oman in the Emirate of Sharjah. It covers approximately 75 square kilometres (29 square miles) and the boundary was settled in 1589. The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Khor Fakkan-Fujairah road, barely 10 metres (33 ft) away. Within the Omani exclave of Madha, is a UAE exclave called Nahwa, also belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah. It is about 8 kilometres (5 mi) on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and telephone exchange.

Flag Emirate Capital Population[170] % of total population Area (km²)[170] Area (mi²) % of total area Density
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi 1,548,655 31.2% 67,340 26,000 86.7% 25
Ajman Ajman 372,923 7.5% 259 100 0.3% 996
Dubai Dubai 1,770,533 35.6% 3,885 1,500 5.0% 336
Fujairah Fujairah 137,940 2.9% 1,165 450 1.5% 109
Ras al-Khaimah Ras al-Khaimah 171,903 3.4% 1,684 650 2.2% 122
Sharjah Sharjah 895,252 18.0% 2,590 1,000 3.3% 262
Umm al-Quwain Umm al-Qaiwain 69,936 1.4% 777 300 0.9% 88
UAE Abu Dhabi 4,967,142 100% 77,700 30,000 100% 56


Towers in Abu Dhabi.

UAE has the second largest economy in the GCC (after Saudi Arabia),[171] with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $377 billion (AED1.38 trillion) in 2012.[172] Since independence in 1971, UAE's economy has grown by nearly 231 times to AED1.45 trillion in 2013.The non-oil trade has grown to AED1.2 trillion, a growth by around 28 times from 1981 to 2012.[171] In 2011, UAE is ranked as the 14th best nation in the world for doing business based on its economy and regulatory environment, ranked by the Doing Business 2011 Report published by the World Bank Group[173]

Although UAE has the most diversified economy in the GCC, the UAE's economy remains extremely reliant on oil. With the exception of Dubai, most of the UAE is dependent on oil revenues. Petroleum and natural gas continue to play a central role in the economy, especially in Abu Dhabi. More than 85% of the UAE's economy was based on the oil exports in 2009.[1][174] While Abu Dhabi and other UAE emirates have remained relatively conservative in their approach to diversification, Dubai, which has far smaller oil reserves, was bolder in its diversification policy.[12] In 2011, oil exports accounted for 77% of the UAE's state budget.[175]

Dubai suffered from a significant economic crisis in 2007-2010 and was bailed out by Abu Dhabi's oil wealth. Dubai's current prosperity has been attributed to Abu Dhabi's petrodollars.[176] Dubai is currently in extreme debt.[177] The GDP growth rate for 2010 was 3.20%.[178] Consumer price index inflation in the April 2008 — April 2009 year was 1.9%.[179] The national debt as of June 2009 was $142 billion.[180] In 2009, its GDP, as measured by purchasing power parity, stood at US$ 400.4 billion.[1] With a population of just under 900,000 Abu Dhabi was labeled "The richest city in the world" by a CNN article.[181]

Left is the Dubai Marina and a oil well on the right. UAE is one of the world's largest exporters of oil.

UAE law does not allow trade unions to exist.[182] The right to collective bargaining and the right to strike are not recognised, and the Ministry of Labour has the power to force workers to go back to work. Migrant workers who participate in a strike can have their work permits cancelled and be deported.[182] Consequently, there are very few anti-discrimination laws in relation to labour issues, with Emiratis – other GCC Arabs – getting preference when it comes to employment, even though they show scant regard for work and learning on the job.[183]

The UAE's economy, particularly that of Dubai, was badly hit by the financial crisis of 2007–2010.[184] In 2009, the country's economy shrank by 4.00% and the property sector and construction went into decline. As the epicenter of the crisis, Dubai was bailed out by Abu Dhabi, with the latter's petrodollars continuing to offer relief.[185] Dubai nonetheless remains in extreme debt.[186]

However, tourism, trade and the retail sector have remained buoyant and the UAE's overseas investments are expected to support its full economic recovery.[178] Concern remains about the property sector. Property prices in Dubai fell dramatically when Dubai World, the government construction company, sought to delay a debt payment. The economy is depending on foreign labour force and Emerisation is only showing few positive effects which was found out in studies from Paul Dyer and Natasha Ridge from Dubai School of Government, Ingo Forstenlechner from United Arab Emirates University, Kasim Randaree from the British University of Dubai and Paul Knoglinger from the FHWien.[187]

The UAE has been spending billions of dollars on infrastructure. These developments are particularly evident in the larger emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The northern emirates are rapidly following suit, providing major incentives for developers of residential and commercial property.[188]

Dubai International Airport was the Busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic from January to May 2013, overtaking London Heathrow.[189][190] As roads in the western and southern regions are still relatively undeveloped, residents prevalently use airplanes as the main or alternative mode of transportation.[191] A 1,200 km (750 mi) country-wide national railway is under construction which will connect all the major cities and ports.[192] The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula.[193] The major ports of the United Arab Emirates are Khalifa Port, Zayed Port, Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Port Saeed, and Port Khor Fakkan.[194]

The UAE is served by two telecommunications operators, Etisalat and Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company ("du"). Etisalat operated a monopoly until du launched mobile services in February 2007.[195] Internet subscribers are expected to increase from 0.904 million in 2007 to 2.66 million in 2012.[196] The authorities filter websites for religious, political and sexual content.[197]


Skyline of Dubai

Tourism acts as a growth sector for the entire UAE economy. It is ranked as one of the world's most sustainable sectors, according to the World Economic Forum's annual Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report. [198]

UAE is ranked as the 28th among 139 countries and first in the Middle East in the World Economic Forum’s “Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013”. Whereas, Dubai here plays a leading role, holding up to 66 per cent share of the UAE’s tourism economy, with Abu Dhabi having 16 per cent and Sharjah 10 per cent. Dubai welcomed 10 million visitors in 2013. [199]

Tourist arrivals in the UAE are estimated to grow up to a compound annual growth rate of 5.3 per cent between 2012 and 2022, with hotel supply also expected to increase from the current 96,992 hotel rooms in Dubai and Abu Dhabi, to a total of 125,383 hotel rooms in 2016.[200]

Expo 2020

UAE launched a successful bid for Expo 2020 with Dubai.[201][202] The win is unprecedented in to the region.[203] World Expos are a meeting point for the global community to share innovations and make progress on issues such as the global economy, sustainable development and improved quality of life. World Expos can be a catalyst for economic, cultural and social transformation and generates legacies for the host city and nation.[204]


The demographics of the UAE are extremely diverse. In 2010, the UAE's population was estimated to be 8,264,070,[205] of whom only 13% were UAE nationals or Emiratis,[207] while the majority of the population were expatriates.[208] The country's net migration rate stands at 13.6, one of the world's highest.[209] Under Article 8 of UAE Federal Law no. 17, an expatriate can apply for UAE citizenship after residing in the country for 20 years, providing that person has never been convicted of a crime and can speak fluent Arabic.[210]

There are 1.4 million Emirati citizens.[6] With a male/female sex ratio of 2.2 for the total population and 2.75 for the 15–65 age group, the UAE's gender imbalance is second highest in the world after Qatar.[211]

In 2009, Emirati citizens accounted for 17% of the total population; South Asian (Indian, Sri Lankan, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) constituted the largest group, making up 58% of the total; other Asians made up 17% while Western expatriates were 8% of the total population.[212]

There is a growing presence of Europeans in the UAE.[213] Western expatriates, from Europe, Australia, Northern America and Latin America make up 500,000 of the UAE population.[212] The UAE has also attracted a small number of expatriates from countries in Europe, North America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania.[214] More than 100,000 British nationals live in the country.[215] The rest of the population were from other Arab states.[1]

The average life expectancy is 77 years (2014).[216][217] About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban.[218]


Religions in UAE (Pew Research)[219][220]
Religion Percent

Islam is the largest and the official state religion of the UAE. The government follows a policy of tolerance toward other religions and rarely interferes in the activities of non-Muslims.[96] By the same token, non-Muslims are expected to avoid interfering in Islamic religious matters or the Islamic upbringing of Muslims.

The government imposes restrictions on spreading other religions through any form of media as it is considered a form of proselytizing. There are approximately 31 churches throughout the country, one Hindu temple in the region of Bur Dubai,[221] one Sikh Gurudwara in Jebel Ali and also a Buddhist temple in Al Garhoud.

Based on the Ministry of Economy census in 2005, 76% of the total population was Muslim, 9% Christian, and 15% other (mainly Hindu).[96] Census figures do not take into account the many "temporary" visitors and workers while also counting Baha'is and Druze as Muslim.[96] Among Emirati citizens, 85% are Sunni Muslim, while Shi'a Muslims are 15%, mostly concentrated in the emirates of Sharjah and Dubai.[96] Omani immigrants are mostly Ibadi, while Sufi influences exist too.[222]

People of all faiths or no faith are given equal protection under the country's constitution and laws.[223]

Largest cities

Largest cities or towns of the United Arab Emirates
2008 Calculation (some figures up to 2012)
Rank Name Emirate Pop. Rank Name Emirate Pop.


Abu Dhabi
1 Dubai Dubai 2,106,533 11 Al Gharbia Abu Dhabi 290,450

Al Ain
2 Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi 1,935,234
3 Sharjah Sharjah 1,332,455
4 Al Ain Abu Dhabi 580,000
5 Ajman Ajman 403,923
6 Ras Al Khaimah Ras al Khaimah 230,903
7 Fujairah Fujairah 145,940
8 Um Al Quwain Um Al Quwain 72,936
9 Khor Fakkan Sharjah 53,635
10 Dibba Fujairah 78,200


A trilingual (Arabic, English, Urdu) signboard in the UAE

Arabic is the national language of the United Arab Emirates. The Gulf dialect of Arabic is spoken natively by the Emirati people.[224] As a British colony until 1971 and being a hub for commerce, English is the primary lingua franca in the UAE. As such, a knowledge of the language is a requirement when applying for most of the jobs in the UAE. Other widely used languages are Persian, Nepali, Bengali, Hindi-Urdu, Balochi, Pashto, Tagalog and Malayalam. Additionally, there are small Somali, Malay, Mandarin and Japanese speaking communities.


A traditional souk in Deira, Dubai

Arab descendants of the Bani Yas, Al Nahyan and Al Maktoum families in Abu Dhabi and Dubai represent the Emirati leadership. Al Qawasim have also played a vital role in the history of the UAE.

Emirati culture is based on Arabian culture and has been heavily influenced by Persian culture. Arabian and Persian inspired architecture is part of the expression of the local Emirati identity.[225] Persian influence on Emirati culture is noticeably visible in traditional Emirati architecture and folk arts.[226] For example, the "barjeel" has become an identifying mark of traditional Emirati architecture and is attributed to Persian influence.[226] Certain folk dances, such as "al-habban", are originally Persian.[226] Local Emirati culture has also been influenced by the cultures of East Africa and India.[226]

The United Arab Emirates has a diverse society.[227] Major holidays in Dubai include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.[228]

Emirati males prefer to wear a kandura, an ankle-length white tunic woven from wool or cotton, and Emirati women wear an abaya, a black over-garment that covers most parts of the body.[229] The campaign UAE Dress Code aims to educate the expat population on modest Islamic dressing and its sensitivity to Emirati population.[230] Each of the seven semiautonomous emirates has its own rules about attire. Dubai is the most liberal in that regard while Ras al-Khaimah is the most strict.[231]

Ancient Emirati poetry was strongly influenced by the 8th-century Arab scholar Al Khalil bin Ahmed. The earliest known poet in the UAE is Ibn Majid, born between 1432 and 1437 in Ras Al-Khaimah. The most famous Emirati writers were Mubarak Al Oqaili (1880–1954), Salem bin Ali al Owais (1887–1959) and Ahmed bin Sulayem (1905–1976). Three other poets from Sharjah, known as the Hirah group, are observed to have been heavily influenced by the Apollo and romantic poets.[232] The Sharjah International Book Fair is the oldest and largest in the country.

The list of museums in the United Arab Emirates includes some of regional repute, most famously Sharjah with its Heritage District containing 17 museums,[233] which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World.[234] In Dubai, the area of Al Quoz has attracted a number of art galleries as well as museums such as the Salsali Private Museum.[235] Abu Dhabi has established a culture district on Saadiyat Island. There, six grand projects are planned, including the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi and the Louvre Abu Dhabi.[236] Dubai also plans to build a Kunsthal museum and a district for galleries and artists.[237]

UAE's traditional dance, yowalah

Emirati culture is a part of the culture of Eastern Arabia. Liwa is a type of music and dance performed mainly in communities that contain descendants of Bantu peoples from the African Great Lakes region.[232] The Dubai Desert Rock Festival is also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists.[238] The cinema of the United Arab Emirates is minimal but expanding.

The Media of the United Arab Emirates plays an important role in the region. Dubai Media City and twofour54, Abu Dhabi's media zone, were set up to attract key players. The UAE is home to major pan-Arab broadcasters, including the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and Orbit Showtime Network. On 25 September 2007 Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum decreed that journalists can no longer be prosecuted or imprisoned for reasons relating to their work.[239] At the same time, the UAE has made it illegal to disseminate online material that can threaten "public order". Criticism of the Royal family or government procedures is not allowed. Prison terms have been given to those who "deride or damage" the reputation of the state and "display contempt" for religion.[240] A YouTube user was arrested in Dubai for filming and uploading a video of a UAE local (who happened to be a Government official) hitting an overseas worker.[136]


The traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish, and meat. The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from other West and South Asian countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Oman. Seafood has been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. Meat and rice are other staple foods; lamb and mutton are the more favored meats, then goat and beef. Popular beverages are coffee and tea, which can be complemented with cardamom, saffron, or mint to give them a distinct flavor.[241] The cosmopolitan nature of the UAE means that food from every continent can be found here. Fast food has become very popular among youth, to the extent that campaigns are underway to highlight the dangers of fast food excesses.[242]

Muslims are prohibited from eating pork, so it is not included in Arab menus. Hotels and other establishments frequently have pork substitutes such as beef sausages and veal rashers on their breakfast menus. If pork is available, it is clearly labeled as such. Unlike other Muslim countries, it is not against the law to bring pork products into the country for personal consumption.

Alcohol is only allowed to be served in hotel restaurants and bars. All nightclubs are permitted to sell alcohol. Specific supermarkets may sell alcohol, but these products are sold in separate sections. Note that although alcohol may be consumed, it is illegal to be intoxicated in public or drive a motor vehicle with any trace of alcohol in the blood.[243]


Football is a popular sport in the UAE. Emirati football clubs Al-Ain, Al-Wasl, Al-Shabbab ACD, Al-Sharjah, Al-Wahda, and Al-Ahli are the most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions.[244] The United Arab Emirates Football Association was first established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organizing youth programs and improving the abilities of not only its players, but of the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. The UAE national football team qualified for the FIFA World Cup in 1990 with Egypt. It was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying, after Kuwait and Algeria in 1982, and Iraq and Algeria again in 1986. The UAE won the Gulf Cup Championship two times.They won the first cup in January 2007 held in Abu Dhabi and has won the recent cup in January 2013 held in Bahrain.[245]

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the UAE, largely because of the expatriate population from the SAARC Countries, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium in Sharjah has hosted 4 international test cricket matches so far.[246] Sheikh Zayed Cricket Stadium in Abu Dhabi also hosted international cricket matches. Dubai has two cricket stadiums (Dubai Cricket Ground No.1 and No.2) with a third, the DSC Cricket Stadium as part of Dubai Sports City. Dubai is also home to the International Cricket Council.[247] The UAE national cricket team qualified for the 1996 Cricket World Cup and narrowly missed out on qualification for the 2007 Cricket World Cup.[248]

The country hosted the 2014 Under-17 Basketball World Championship.[249] The senior national team is a major contender on the Arabian Peninsula in terms of qualification to major international basketball events such as the Asian Championship.

Formula One is particularly popular in the United Arab Emirates, and is annually held at the picturesque Yas Marina Circuit. The race is held at evening time, and is the first ever Grand Prix to start in daylight and finish at night.[250]

Other popular sports include camel racing, falconry, endurance riding, and tennis.[251] The emirate of Dubai is also home to two major golf courses: The Dubai Golf Club and Emirates Golf Club.


Student center of the American University of Sharjah.

The education system through secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education in all emirates except Abu Dhabi, where it falls under the authority of the Abu Dhabi Education Council. It consists of primary schools, middle schools and high schools.[252] The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emirates development's goals and values. The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary.

The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education. The ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its undergraduate institutions.[253]

The literacy rate in 2007 was 91%.[254][255] Thousands of nationals are pursuing formal learning at 86 adult education centres spread across the country.[256]

The UAE has shown a strong interest in improving education and research. Enterprises include the establishment of the CERT Research Centers and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and Institute for Enterprise Development.[257]

According to the QS Rankings, the top-ranking universities in the country are the United Arab Emirates University (421–430th worldwide), the American University of Sharjah (431–440th) and University of Sharjah (3046th).[258]


Dubai Healthcare City, specifically designated for clinical and wellness services

The life expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 78.5 years.[217] Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the UAE, constituting 28% of total deaths; other major causes are accidents and injuries, malignancies, and congenital anomalies.[259]

In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabi and Dubai, do not have separate healthcare authorities. The strategy focuses on unifying healthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment. The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. Nine were scheduled to open in 2008.[260]

The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependants was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy. Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees. Eventually, under federal law, every Emirati and expatriate in the country will be covered by compulsory health insurance under a unified mandatory scheme.[261] The country has benefited from medical tourists from all over the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. The UAE attracts medical tourists seeking plastic surgery and advanced procedures, cardiac and spinal surgery, and dental treatment, as health services have higher standards than other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf.[128]

See also


  1. ^ Arabic: الاماراتAl-ʾImārāt


  1. ^ a b c d e f "The World Factbook". CIA. 
  2. ^ "UAE population hits 6m, Emiratis make up 16.5%". Arabianbusiness.com. 7 October 2009. 
  3. ^ a b "Population (Total)". World Bank. 
  4. ^ a b c d "United Arab Emirates". International Monetary Fund. 
  5. ^ "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Call to naturalise some expats stirs anxiety in the UAE". 
  7. ^ "Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses". www.migrationpolicy.org. 
  8. ^ "UAE Makes Arabic Its Official Language". Middleeast.about.com. 9 March 2008. 
  9. ^ "IMF Data Mapper". Imf.org. 
  10. ^ "Oil – proved reserves". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. 
  11. ^ Natural Gas. BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012
  12. ^ a b c d "United Arab Emirates profile". BBC News. 14 November 2012. 
  13. ^ "WTO Trade Statistic 2009". Stat.wto.org. 
  14. ^ "Economic diversification in the GCC countries". p. 13. 
  15. ^ Laipson, Ellen (3 September 2014). "The UAE and Egypt's New Frontier in Libya". The National Interest. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  16. ^ Evans, Gareth (29 June 2011). "Middle Power Diplomacy". Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  17. ^ Pennington, Roberta (5 February 2014). "UAE archaeologist discovers the Swiss Army knife from 130,000 years ago". The National. Retrieved November 2014. 
  18. ^ "Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS)". Adias-uae.com. 
  19. ^ Ibrahim Abed; Peter Hellyer (2001). United Arab Emirates, a New Perspective. Trident Press Ltd. pp. 83–84. ISBN . 
  20. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. pp. 22–23. ISBN . 
  21. ^ Thomas, Jen (12 December 2012). "Ancient secrets of Sir Bani Yas unveiled". The National. Retrieved November 2014. 
  22. ^ Hawley, Donald (1971). The Trucial States. UK: Allen & Unwin. pp. 48–51. ISBN . 
  23. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. p. 127. ISBN . 
  24. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. pp. 127–128. ISBN . 
  25. ^ Lorimer, John (1908). The Gazeteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia. Bombay: Government of India. pp. 1432–1436. 
  26. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. p. 43. ISBN . 
  27. ^ 'Kashf Al Gumma' "Annals of Oman from Early times to the year 1728 AD" - Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874
  28. ^ Ibn Ruzaiq, translated by GP Badger, "History of the Imams and Sayids of Oman", London 1871
  29. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. p. 282. ISBN . 
  30. ^ "November 3, 2008 – The UAE is the old Pirate Coast. Not much has changed.". Wayne Madsen Report. 
  31. ^ Tore Kjeilen (4 April 2007). "Trucial States". Looklex.com. 
  32. ^ United Arab Emirates – The Economy". Library of Congress Country Studies. Countrystudies.us. Retrieved on 14 July 2013.
  33. ^ Al Qasimi, Sultan (1986). The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf. UK: Croom Helm. ISBN . 
  34. ^ "UAE History & Traditions: Pearls & pearling". UAEinteract. 
  35. ^ "Al Khaleej News Paper". Archived from the original on 3 August 2008. 
  36. ^ "Trucial States Council until 1971 (United Arab Emirates)". Fotw.net. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. 
  37. ^ "United Arab Emirates (06/07)". State.gov. 
  38. ^ "Historic UAE-Oman accord involves 272km of border". Gulf News. 22 July 2008. Retrieved November 2014. 
  39. ^ "United Arab Emirates – Oil and Natural Gas". Countrystudies.us. 
  40. ^ Heard, David (2013). From Pearls to Oil. UAE: Motivate. pp. 41–42. ISBN . 
  41. ^ Cousteau, Jacques (August 1955). "Calypso explores for underwater oil". National Geograhic Magazine. CVIII (2). 
  42. ^ Butt, Gerald. "Oil and Gas in the UAE". UAE Interact. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  43. ^ Heard, David (2013). From Pearls to Oil. UAE: Motivate. pp. 413–416. ISBN . 
  44. ^ "Middle East | Country profiles | Country profile: United Arab Emirates". BBC News. 11 March 2009. 
  45. ^ Jonathan Gornall (2 December 2011). "Sun sets on British Empire as UAE raises its flag – The National". Thenational.ae. 
  46. ^ "History the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – TEN Guide". Guide.theemiratesnetwork.com. 11 February 1972. 
  47. ^ "Bahrain – INDEPENDENCE". Country-data.com. 
  48. ^ "United Arab Emirates: History, Geography, Government, and Culture —". Infoplease.com. 
  49. ^ Simon C. Smith (2004). Britain's Revival and Fall in the Gulf: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States, 1950–71. Routledge. pp. 64–. ISBN . 
  50. ^ "Trucial Oman or Trucial States – Origin of Trucial Oman or Trucial States | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names". Encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 2011-11-19. 
  51. ^ Alfred B. Prados (20 November 2002) Iraqi Challenges and U.S. Responses: March 1991 through October 2002 at the Wayback Machine (archived August 18, 2006), The Library of Congress, US.
  52. ^ Sean Foley (March 1999). "The UAE: Political Issues and Security Dilemmas". Middle East Review of International Affairs 3 (1). 
  53. ^ "United Arab Emirates profile – Timeline". BBC News. 14 November 2012. 
  54. ^ "Veteran Gulf ruler Zayed dies". BBC News. 2 November 2004. 
  55. ^ "UAE toughens Internet clampdown". The Muslim News. 14 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. 
  56. ^ "UAE Oil and Gas". Uae.gov.ae. 19 June 1999. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. 
  57. ^ "Saudi-UAE Disputes". Arabmediawatch.com. 21 August 1974. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010. 
  58. ^ "UAE Disputes, International UAE Disputes, UAE Boundary Dispute, UAE National Disputes, UAE Emirate Disputes, Claims Three Islands, Abu Musa Island, Greater & Lesser Tumb, The History of Islands, Human Resources UAE, Arab Emirates". Uaeprison.com. 14 May 2007. 
  59. ^ Muhammad Aurang Zeb Mughal (2013). Persian Gulf Desert and Semi-desert. Robert Warren Howarth (ed.), Biomes & Ecosystems, Vol. 3. Ipswich, MA: Salem Press, pp. 1000–1002.
  60. ^ "» UAE Climate". Manmm.net. 
  61. ^ "rak Weather". Abudhabi.ms. 8 March 2007. 
  62. ^ "In Pictures | Flooding in the UAE". BBC News. 15 January 2008. 
  63. ^ Nasouh Nazzal (24 January 2009). "Heavy snowfall on Ras Al Khaimah's Jebel Jais mountain cluster". Gulf News. 
  64. ^ "Human Rights Watch warns expat women about the UAE". 
  65. ^ a b "Torture and flogging". Fanack. 
  66. ^ "UAE: Judicial corporal punishment by flogging". World Corporal Punishment Research. 
  67. ^ "United Arab Emirates". Crime and Society. 
  68. ^ "Pregnant maid to get 100 lashes after being found guilty of illegal affair". 
  69. ^ "Teenager to be lashed for adultery". 
  70. ^ "Illicit lovers sentenced to 100 lashes each". 
  71. ^ a b "Two women sentenced to death for adultery". 
  72. ^ "Prison for couple who conceived outside of wedlock". KA, 19, Emirati, was sentenced to six months in prison. Her would-be husband, AM, Omani, was sentenced to 100 lashes and one year in prison. 
  73. ^ "Adulterer to be lashed, jailed in Sharjah". 
  74. ^ "DUBAI: Alleged victim of gang rape sentenced to one year in prison". At that point, she was facing a penalty for extramarital sex, which is 100 lashes and a minimum of three years in prison. 
  75. ^ "Couple deny kissing on Abu Dhabi Corniche". A man jailed and sentenced to 80 lashes for drunkenly kissing his girlfriend on the Corniche. 
  76. ^ "Man to get 80 lashes for drinking alcohol". 2010. 
  77. ^ "Man appeals 80 lashes for drinking alcohol in Abu Dhabi". 2012. 
  78. ^ "Estonian soldier to be lashed". 
  79. ^ "Girl to receive 60 lashes for illicit sex". 
  80. ^ "Two sex workers are sentenced to lashes". 
  81. ^ "Indian lover in UAE sentenced to 60 lashes". 
  82. ^ "Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning". Under the same law, premarital sex is punishable by 100 lashes. 
  83. ^ "UAE: Death by stoning/ flogging". Amnesty. 
  84. ^ "Man faces stoning in UAE for incest". 
  85. ^ "Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning". 
  86. ^ "Expat faces death by stoning after admitting in court to cheating on husband". 
  87. ^ "Woman Sentenced to Death by Stoning in UAE". 
  88. ^ "Asian housemaid gets death for adultery in Abu Dhabi". 
  89. ^ a b "Britons 'liable to Sharia divorces' in UAE". BBC. 
  90. ^ "The UAE Court System". Consulate General of the United States Dubai, UAE. 
  91. ^ "The International Briefing: Persecution of Atheists and Apostates". 
  92. ^ "Atheists face death in 13 countries, global discrimination: study". 
  93. ^ a b Butti Sultan Butti Ali Al-Muhairi (1996), The Islamisation of Laws in the UAE: The Case of the Penal Code, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 4 (1996), pp. 350–371
  94. ^ Al-Muhairi (1997), Conclusion to the Series of Articles on the UAE Penal Law. Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 4
  95. ^ a b c d "Divorcees, widows concerned about receiving ‘permission’ before remarrying". 
  96. ^ a b c d e f "United Arab Emirates International Religious Freedom Report, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2009)". U.S. Department of State. 
  97. ^ "Public kissing can lead to deportation". 
  98. ^ "Jailed Dubai kissing pair lose appeal over conviction". 
  99. ^ "Women get jail and deportation for kissing on Dubai public beach". gulfnews. 25 May 2008. 
  100. ^ "London man tells of 'shock' jailing in Dubai over kiss". 
  101. ^ "Couple deny kissing on Abu Dhabi Corniche". A man jailed and sentenced to 80 lashes for drunkenly kissing his girlfriend on the Corniche 
  102. ^ "UAE laws and legislation in English". 
  103. ^ "Federal criminal statute In UAE". Sodomylaws.Org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. 
  104. ^ "Amnesty International Report 1999 - United Arab Emirates". 
  105. ^ "United Arab Emirates: Briefing for the Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review". p. 3. 
  106. ^ "United Arab Emirates - Global Progress". Punishments include flogging, amputation, and – as retaliation – injury similar to that for which the offender has been convicted of inflicting on the victim. 
  107. ^ "United Arab Emirates - Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". In February an Indonesian woman convicted of adultery by the Shari'a court in the Emirate of Fujairah, was sentenced to death by stoning after she purportedly insisted on such punishment. The sentence was commuted on appeal to 1 year in prison, followed by deportation. In June 1998, the Shari'a court in Fujairah sentenced three Omani nationals convicted of robbery to have their right hands amputated. The Fujairah prosecutor's office instead commuted the sentence to a term of imprisonment. 
  108. ^ "Defining Sharia's role in the UAE's legal foundation". 
  109. ^ "Federal Law No (3) of 1987 on Issuance of the Penal Code". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 
  110. ^ "Measures Against Corruptibility, Gifts and Gratification – Bribery in the Middle East". Arab Law Quarterly. 
  111. ^ Riazat Butt (31 July 2011). "Britons warned to respect Ramadan while holidaying in Dubai". The Guardian (London, UK). OCLC 60623878. 
  112. ^ "Modern Day Slave Labor: Conditions for Abu Dhabi's Migrant Workers Shame the West". 
  113. ^ a b c "United Arab Emirates". International Trade Union Confederation. 
  114. ^ "United Arab Emirates". International Trade Union Confederation. 
  115. ^ "'"Conditions for Abu Dhabi's migrant workers 'shame the west. 
  116. ^ "Call for UN to investigate plight of migrant workers in the UAE". 
  117. ^ Keane, D.; McGeehan, N. (2008). "Enforcing Migrant Workers' Rights in the United Arab Emirates". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 15: 81. doi:10.1163/138548708X272537. 
  118. ^ "Building Towers, Cheating Workers". Human Rights Watch. 11 November 2006. 
  119. ^ "Midday Break To Be Strictly Enforced". thenational.ae. 16 June 2011. 
  120. ^ Cambanis, Thanassis (1 November 2007). "In Rape Case, a French Youth Takes On Dubai". The New York Times. 
  121. ^ "ABC News Exclusive: Torture Tape Implicates UAE Royal Sheikh". Abcnews.go.com. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  122. ^ Amena Bakr (14 December 2009). "UAE ruling family member says not guilty of torture". Reuters. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  123. ^ Amena Bakr (10 January 2010). "UAE ruling family member acquitted in torture trial". Reuters. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  124. ^ "Rights group questions UAE trial". Al Jazeera. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2010. 
  125. ^ "US concern after UAE acquits sheikh in torture case". BBC News. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2010. 
  126. ^ "DUBAI: Alleged victim of gang rape sentenced to one year in prison". 
  127. ^ a b c The Associated Press (22 July 2013). "Dubai Pardons Woman at Center of Rape Dispute". Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
  128. ^ a b Mitya Underwood. "International coverage of UAE law: ignorance is no excuse". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  129. ^ "Dubai ruler pardons Norwegian woman convicted after she reported rape". CNN.com. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  130. ^ "'"Dubai drugs trial: Mother tells of 'torture horror. BBC. 28 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  131. ^ "Dubai drugs trial: David Cameron 'concerned' over torture claims". 29 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  132. ^ "Dubai pardons three Britons 'tortured' and jailed over drugs". The Guardian. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  133. ^ a b "United Arab Emirates Reports". Freedom House. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  134. ^ "Freedom House Condemns Attacks on Human Rights Defenders in UAE". Freedom House. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  135. ^ "Annual Report 2013". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  136. ^ a b Senior UAE official arrested over driver attack. ArabianBusiness.com; retrieved 26 January 2014.
  137. ^ "Three held for parody video on Satwa streets", Khaleej Times, 9 December 2013; retrieved 26 January 2014.
  138. ^ "Multimedia Yearbook 2010". UAE Yearbook. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. 
  139. ^ Sarah Leah Whitson (24 March 2007). "UAE: Draft Labor Law Violates International Standards". Human Rights Watch. 
  140. ^ "Indian workers jailed in Dubai over violent protest". Reuters. 24 February 2008. 
  141. ^ "United Arab Emirates". State.gov. 28 February 2005. 
  142. ^ "Citizenship of 6 naturalised Emiratis revoked by President - GulfNews.com". Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  143. ^ http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/6217
  144. ^ "World Report 2013: United Arab Emirates – Human Rights Watch". Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  145. ^ "UAE stateless rights activist says expelled to Thailand". Chicago Tribune. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  146. ^ "UAE: Bidun blogger forced to leave country, raising alarm after wave of arbitrary arrests – Amnesty International". 16 July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  147. ^ "UAE Government: Political system". UAEinteract. 
  148. ^ "UAE Government: Political system". UAEinteract. 
  149. ^ "UAE". Arabruleoflaw.org. 
  150. ^ "UAE Federal e-Government Portal". Government.ae. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. 
  151. ^ UAE federal eGovernment. "Service Channels- The UAE Government Official Portal". Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  152. ^ "Trouble in the United Arab Emirates: The perils of autocracy". the Economist. 
  153. ^ "Dubai, the UAE, and the Gulf States: Autocracy in Question". 
  154. ^ "Secret Desert Force Set Up by Blackwater’s Founder". 
  155. ^ "Secret Desert Force Set Up by Blackwater’s Founder". The United Arab Emirates — an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state — are closely allied with the United States, and American officials indicated that the battalion program had some support in Washington. 
  156. ^ Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism: Fourth Report of Session. House of Commons. p. 60. 
  157. ^ "Egypt and U.A.E. Relations". Egypt State Information Service Sis.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009. 
  158. ^ "Relations with UAE get wider, deeper". Pakistan Observer. 26 November 2008. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. 
  159. ^ a b "What countries spent the most to influence the USA in 2013". 
  160. ^ UAE Eyes Ways to Discourage Marriage with Foreigners. Antisystemic.org (2005-10-21). Retrieved on 2014-01-26.
  161. ^ "India-UAE Bilateral Relations". Embassy of India, UAE. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. 
  162. ^ Konfliktbarometer 2001 at the Wayback Machine (archived March 12, 2007). Heidelberger Institut für Internationale Konfliktforschung
  163. ^ "UAE Government: Foreign policy". UAEinteract. 1 January 2008. 
  164. ^ "UAE and France sign landmark nuclear cooperation agreement". Archive.gulfnews.com. 16 January 2008. 
  165. ^ "France signs up to £2 billion deal to build nuclear plants in the Gulf". The Times. 16 January 2008. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. 
  166. ^ a b "Japan-United Arab Emirates Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 
  167. ^ "UAE confirms discussions with France on purchase of Rafale aircraft". Emirates News Agency. 5 June 2008. 
  168. ^ "Hollande says UAE Rafale jet deal depends on price". Reuters. 15 January 2013. 
  169. ^ "US launches air strikes against Isil in Syria". The Telegraph. 24 September 2014. 
  170. ^ a b "Census 2008". Ministry of Economy and Planning, Government of the United Arab Emirates. 2008. 
  171. ^ a b "UAE's economy growth momentum set to pick up". Khaleej Times. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  172. ^ "GDP to hit $474.2b in 2018". Khaleej Times. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  173. ^ "Economy Rankings". World Bank Group. 
  174. ^ "WTO Trade Statistic 2009". Stat.wto.org. 
  175. ^ "Economic diversification in the GCC countries". p. 13. 
  176. ^ "Speaking of Water". 
  177. ^ "Dubai Drowning in Debt". 
  178. ^ a b "GDP – real growth rate". Cia.gov. 
  179. ^ Daliah Merzaban (3 June 2009). "UAE inflation slows to 1.9% led by housing slowdown". ArabianBusiness.com. 
  180. ^ Andy Sambidge (18 June 2009). "UAE moves to reduce public debt". ArabianBusiness.com. 
  181. ^ Barney Gimbel (8 March 2007). "The richest city in the world". CNN (Fortune). 
  182. ^ a b "United Arab Emirates". Annual Survey of violations of trade union rights 2012. ITUC. 
  183. ^ Emiratisation won't work if people don't want to learn | The National. Thenational.ae (2013-03-18). Retrieved on 2014-01-26.
  184. ^ "Global financial crisis takes toll on UAE". News.xinhuanet.com. 2 December 2008. 
  185. ^ "Speaking of Water". 
  186. ^ "Dubai Drowning in Debt". 
  187. ^ "The Seismic Activities of Dubai Property Bubble and Inevitable Consequences". Asian Tribune. 9 November 2009. 
  188. ^ "UAE yearbook 2009". Slideshare.net. 
  189. ^ Year to date. Aci.aero (2014-01-20). Retrieved on 2014-01-26.
  190. ^ Ivan Gale (30 April 2008). "Dubai world's sixth busiest airport". Thenational.ae. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. 
  191. ^ James Reinl (16 June 2009). "UAE roads are among the most deadly: UN". The National Newspaper. Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. 
  192. ^ "From sand to sea". International Railway Journal. 21 March 2012. 
  193. ^ "Will metro change Dubai car culture?". BBC News. 11 September 2009. 
  194. ^ "UAE Ports". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 14 July 2008. 
  195. ^ "United Arab Emirates" (PDF). OpenNet Interactive. 
  196. ^ "UAE telecom market grows with competition | Mobile telecomms report". Ameinfo.com. 
  197. ^ "UAE reports high website censorship". The National Newspaper. 12 June 2009. 
  198. ^ "U.A.E. Tourism Report". 
  199. ^ "Uae ranking and tourism". 
  200. ^ "Uae Tourism Analysis". 
  201. ^ WAM. "Expo impact: UAE to see $35bn contracts – Emirates 24/7". Emirates 24/7. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  202. ^ "Hosting of Expo 2020 unprecedented achievement for the region, says Sultan Al Jaber – WAM". Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  203. ^ "Dubai Expo will open up unlimited opportunities – WAM". Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  204. ^ "Expo 2020...What it Means to Us? – CSS Light House". CSS Light House. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  205. ^ a b "UAE National Bureau of Statistics" (PDF). 
  206. ^ "United Arab Emirates". World Gazetteer. 
  207. ^ "Population leaps to 8.19 million". Thenational.ae. 30 May 2010. 
  208. ^ Andrzej Kapiszewski (22 May 2006). "Arab versus Asian migrant workers in the GCC countries" (PDF). UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 
  209. ^ "Net migration rate". Cia.gov. 
  210. ^ Camille Paldi (13 July 2010) UAE Islamic Finance. I Love The UAE. Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
  211. ^ "Sex ratio". The World Factbook. 
  212. ^ a b Andy Sambidge (7 October 2009). "UAE population hits 6m, Emiratis make up 16.5%". ArabianBusiness.com. 
  213. ^ "Expat numbers rise rapidly as UAE population touches 6m". Uaeinteract.com. 
  214. ^ Mcintosh, Lindsay (16 June 2008). "Terror red alert for 100,000 British expats in Dubai". News.scotsman.com. 
  215. ^ Giles Whittell (15 March 2010). "British pair face jail for kissing in Dubai restaurant". The Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. 
  216. ^ "Life expectancy at birth". CIA World Factbook. 
  217. ^ a b "Average life expectancy in UAE rises to 75 years". Uaeinteract.com. 
  218. ^ "Table 3.10 Urbanization" (PDF). World Development Indicators. World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009.  (link to HTML page with the PDFs) at the Wayback Machine (archived June 29, 2009)
  219. ^ Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: United Arab Emirates. Pew Research Center. 2010.
  220. ^ United Arab Emirates. International Religious Freedom Report 2007. State.gov. Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
  221. ^ Bassma Al Jandaly (5 April 2008). "Churches and temples in the UAE". Archive.gulfnews.com. 
  222. ^ "Islam: Sunnis and Shiites" (PDF). investigativeproject.org. 23 February 2004. 
  223. ^ "Unite Arab Emirates profile – Leaders". BBC News. 
  224. ^ Christensen, Shane (2010). Frommer's Dubai. John Wiley & Sons. p. 174. ISBN . 
  225. ^ Handbook of Islamic Marketing. p. 430. Arabian and Persian inspired architecture is part of the expression of a 'local' identity. 
  226. ^ a b c d Folklore and Folklife in the United Arab Emirates. p. 167. 
  227. ^ "Country and Metropolitan Stats in Brief" (PDF). 
  228. ^ "Official holidays in UAE". Gowealthy.com. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. 
  229. ^ "UAE National Clothing". Grapeshisha.com. 
  230. ^ "UAE to clamp down on scantly dressed foreigners". MuslimVillage.com. 19 June 2012. 
  231. ^ "Bikini Dilarang di Uni Emirate Arab". 30 April 2013. 
  232. ^ a b "Literature and Poetry". Visitabudhabi.ae. 1 July 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. 
  233. ^ Sharjah Museums Department. sharjahmuseums.ae
  234. ^ "About Sharjah – Sharjah Commerce Tourism Development Authority". Sharjahtourism.ae. 18 October 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. 
  235. ^ Dubai FAQs. "Art Galleries Dubai". Dubaifaqs.com. 
  236. ^ "Saadiyat Island – Island of Happiness". Saadiyat.ae. 19 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. 
  237. ^ John Irish and Tamara Walid (11 June 2009). "Dubai eyeing new fashion, design district". ArabianBusiness.com. 
  238. ^ "Festival Info". www.DesertRockFestival.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. 
  239. ^ "United Arab Emirates". Carnegie Endowment. 
  240. ^ "United Arab Emirates – Media". BBC News. 15 June 2012. 
  241. ^ "UAE Travel& Tourism: Food & Drink". UAEinteract. 
  242. ^ The UAE’s big fat problem. GulfNews.com (2012-07-19). Retrieved on 2014-01-26.
  243. ^ "Alcohol and Pork Licenses". Alloexpat.com. 30 May 2009. 
  244. ^ "Clubs, Sports Clubs UAE United Arab Emirates". Indexuae.com. 
  245. ^ "Gulf Cup 2007". Gulfnews. Archived from the original on 18 March 2007. 
  246. ^ "UAE Cricket Timeline". Cricketeurope4.net. 
  247. ^ "Cricinfo – Grounds – United Arab Emirates". Content-uk.cricinfo.com. 17 June 2008. 
  248. ^ K.R. Nayar (6 September 2008). "Not stumped by UAE cricket issues – Khan". Gulfnews. 
  249. ^ "2014 Under-17 Basketball World Championship – United Arab Emirates". Content-FIBA.com.com. 5 August 2014. 
  250. ^ "AUTOSPORT.com – premium content". AUTOSPORT.com. 28 August 2009. 
  251. ^ "UAE Sports". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. 
  252. ^ "Schools in UAE". Ranking of schools in UAE. 
  253. ^ "American University in Dubai. Undergraduate : Admission". Aud.edu. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. 
  254. ^ "Country Profile: United Arab Emirates" (PDF). Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. 
  255. ^ Ghazala Biqluise. "Study in UAE – UAE Educational System". Arabiancampus.com. 
  256. ^ "UAE Education". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 15 September 2007. 
  257. ^ "MASDAR | The Masdar Institute | Profile". Web.archive.org. 31 July 2008. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008. 
  258. ^ "United Arab Emirates". 
  259. ^ "United Arab Emirates country profile" (PDF). Library of Congress. 
  260. ^ "UAE Health". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. 
  261. ^ Dina El Shammaa (3 January 2009). "Health cover is mandatory". Gulfnews. 

External links

  • United Arab Emirates entry at The World Factbook
  • United Arab Emirates web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries
  • InterNet Website Services Provider IN UAE
  • United Arab Emirates at DMOZ
  • United Arab Emirates profile from the BBC News.
  • United Arab Emirates country profile from the Lebanese Economy Forum, extracted from the CIA Factbook & Worldbank data.
  • World Bank Summary Trade Statistics United Arab Emirates
  • Bohra caste relations
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.