World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Urologic disease

Article Id: WHEBN0018369319
Reproduction Date:

Title: Urologic disease  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Overflow incontinence, Symptom, Infection, Ureteritis, Horseshoe kidney
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Urologic disease

Urologic disease
Classification and external resources
MeSH D014570

Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system.

Kidney diseases are normally investigated and treated by Gynecologists may deal with problems of incontinence in women.

Diseases of other bodily systems also have a direct effect on urogenital function. For instance, it has been shown that protein released by the kidneys in diabetes mellitus sensitises the kidney to the damaging effects of hypertension.[1]

Diabetes also can have a direct effect on urination due to peripheral neuropathies which occur in some individuals with poorly controlled diabetics.

Kidney disease

Renal failure is defined by functional impairment of the kidney. Renal failure can be acute or chronic, and can be further broken down into categories of pre-renal, intrinsic renal and post-renal.

Pre-renal failure refers to impairment of supply of blood to the functional nephrons including renal artery stenosis. Intrinsic renal diseases are the classic diseases of the kidney including drug toxicity and nephritis. Post-renal failure is outlet obstruction after the kidney, such as a kidney stone or prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. Renal failure may require medication, dietary and lifestyle modification and dialysis.

Primary renal cell carcinomas as well as metastatic cancers can affect the kidney.

Non-renal urinary tract disease

The causes of diseases of the body are common to the urinary tract. Structural and or traumatic change can lead to hemorrhage, functional blockage or inflammation. Colonisation by bacteria, protozoa or fungi can cause infection. Uncontrolled cell growth can cause neoplasia. For example:

The term "uropathy" refers to a disease of the urinary tract, while "nephropathy" refers to a disease of the kidney.

Testing

Biochemical blood tests determine the amount of typical markers of renal function in the blood serum, for instance serum urea and serum creatinine. Biochemistry can also be used to determine serum electrolytes. Special biochemical tests (arterial blood gas) can determine the amount of dissolved gases in the blood, indicating if pH imbalances are acute or chronic.

Urinalysis is a test that studies urine for abnormal substances such as protein or signs of infection.

  • A Full Ward Test, also known as dipstick urinalysis, involves the dipping of a biochemically active test strip into the urine specimen to determine levels of tell-tale chemicals in the urine.
  • Urinalysis can also involve MC&S microscopy, culture and sensitivity

Urodynamic tests evaluate the storage of urine in the bladder and the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra. It may be performed in cases of incontinence or neurological problems affecting the urinary tract.

Ultrasound is commonly performed to investigate problems of the kidney and/or urinary tract.

Radiology:

  • KUB is plain radiography of the urinary system, e.g. to identify kidney stones.
  • An intravenous pyelogram studies the shape of the urinary system.
  • CAT scans and MRI can also be useful in localising urinary tract pathology.
  • A voiding cystogram is a functional study where contrast "dye" is injected through a catheter into the bladder. Under x-ray the radiologist asks the patient to void (usually young children) and will watch the contrast exiting the body on the x-ray monitor. This examines the child's bladder and lower urinary tract. Typically looking for vesicoureteral reflux, involving urine backflow up into the kidneys.

References

  1. ^ Baba, T; Murabayashi, S; Tomiyama, T; Takebe, K (1990). "Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with a rapid progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria and preserved renal function". The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine 161 (4): 311–8.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.