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Title: Vlachs  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: History of the Aromanians, Romanians, Wallachia, History of Romanian, Controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Moldova
Collection: Eastern Romance People, Romance Peoples
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Total population


Map of Balkans with regions significantly inhabited by Vlachs/Romanians highlighted

The Vlachs (English pronunciation: or ) are several modern Latin peoples descending from the Romanized population in the present-day territory of Romania and Moldova, as well as the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula and south and west of the Danube River.[5]

The Vlachs did not become easily identifiable before the 11th century when they were described by Migration period is considered by some historians a matter of scholarly speculation.[6] According to one of the origin theories Vlachs originated from Latinized Dacians.[7] According to some linguists and scholars, the existence of the present Eastern Romance languages proves the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the Lower Danube basin during the Age of Migrations,[8] while populations from the western Balkans historically referred to as "Vlachs" could have also had Romanized Illyrian origins.[9]

Almost all modern nations in central and south-eastern Europe, e.g. Hungary, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece and Bulgaria have native Vlach or Romanian minorities. In other countries, the native Vlach population has been more or less assimilated into the Slavic population. Only Romania and Moldova have Romanian ethnic majorities today.


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
  • People 3
    • Territories with Vlach population 3.1
    • Genetics 3.2
  • Occupations 4
  • Culture 5
  • Language 6
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8
  • References 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11


The word Vlach is ultimately of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, "foreigner", "stranger", a name used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and (Romanized) Celtic neighbours. In turn, Walha may have been derived from the name of a Celtic tribe which was known to the Romans as Volcae in the writings of Julius Caesar and to the Greeks as Ouólkai in texts by Strabo and Ptolemy.[10] As such, the term Vlach shares its history with several European ethnic names, including the Welsh and Walloons.[11]

From the Germanic peoples, the term passed to the Slavs and from these in turn to other peoples, such as the Hungarians ("oláh", referring to Vlachs, more specifically Romanians, "olasz", referring to Italians) and Byzantines ("Βλάχοι", "Vláhi"), and was used for all Latin people of the Balkans.[12] In Bosnia, Orthodox Christians were called "Vlachs", actually used as a synonym of "Serbs".[13] The Polish word for "Italian", Włoch (plural Włosi), has the same origin, as does the Slovenian, vaguely derogatory word "lach", also for Italians. The Italian-speaking region lying south of South Tyrol, now part of Italy with the name "Trentino", was known as Welschtirol in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. "Vlah" is also a derogatory term used in Croatia when referring to inhabitants of Dalmatian hinterland and the Dinarides area, regardless of their religious affiliation, ("Vlaji") and in Bosnia referring to a person of Eastern Orthodox Church ("Vlasi").


Writ issued on 14 October 1465 by the Wallachian voivode Radu cel Frumos, from his residence in Bucharest.
The Jireček line between Latin- and Greek-language Roman inscriptions

The first record of a medieval Romance language in the Balkans dates to the early Byzantine period in which Procopius' (500–565) mention forts with names such as Skeptekasas (Seven Houses), Burgulatu (Broad City), Loupofantana (Wolf's Well) and Gemellomountes (Twin Mountains).[14][15] A Byzantine chronicle of 586 about an incursion against the Avars in the eastern Balkans may contain one of the earliest references to Vlachs. The account states that when the baggage carried by a mule slipped, the muleteer shouted, "Torna, torna, fratre!" ("Return, return, brother!").[16][17][18]

Byzantine historians used the German origin name Vlachs for Latin speakers and especially for Romanians.[19][20][21]

The name Blökumenn is mentioned in a Nordic Saga, in the context of some events taking place in 1018 or 1019, believed to be related to the Vlachs.[22][23]

Traveler Benjamin of Tudela (1130–1173), of the Kingdom of Navarre, was one of the first writers using the word Vlachs for a Romance-speaking population.[24]

Arab chronicler Mutahhar al-Maqdisi stated: "they say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars, Russians, Slavs, "Waladj", Alans, Greeks and many other peoples."[25]

Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, the author of the Strategikon (1078), described a Roman (Vlach) revolt in Northern Greece in 1066.[26]

In the late 9th century, the Hungarians invaded the Pannonian basin, where, according to the Gesta Hungarorum written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Bela III of Hungary, the province of Pannonia was inhabited by Slavs, Bulgars, Vlachs, and pastores Romanorum (shepherds of the Romans) (in original: sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum). Between the 12th and 14th centuries they came under the Kingdom of Hungary, the Byzantine Empire and the Golden Horde.[27]

Anna Comnen in Alexiade (Chapter XIV) identifies the Vlachs from Balkans with Dacians, describing their places around Haemus mountains: "...on either side of its slopes dwell many very wealthy tribes, the Dacians and the Thracians on the northern side, and on the southern, more Thracians and the Macedonians". Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes' military expedition in Northern Danube in which he mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles against Magyars in 1166.[28][29]

In 1213, a joint army composed by Romans (Vlachs), Saxons and Pechenegs led by Ioachim from Sibiu, attacked the Bulgars and Cumans from Vidin. From this date, all battles of Hungarian kingdom in Carpathian area were supported by Romance people from Transylvania.[30]

Simon de Keza wrote at the end of the 13th century (during Ladislaus the Cuman) about the Roman origin of "blacki" and placed their presence in Pannonia starting with the Hun Empire.[31][32]

Archaeological discoveries in Transylvania show that Transylvania was gradually occupied by Magyars and the last standing region defended by Vlachs and Pechenegs (until 1200) was between Olt river and Carpathians[33][34] Shortly after the fall of Olt, a Catholic church started to be constructed at Cârța and catholic emigrants (Saxons) were brought to balance the local Orthodox population.[35] Diploma Andreanum issued by Andrew II of Hungary in 1224 shows that "silva blacorum et bissenorum" was granted to emigrants.[36]

Vlachs (Wołosi in Polish) have spread along Carpathian ridge to former Poland, Slovakia and even as far as to Moravia. Vlachs were granted with autonomy under the Ius Vlachonicum (Walachian Law, Prawo Wołoskie) and professed Orthodox faith.[37]

In 1285, Ladislaus the Cuman battled with Tatars and Cumans and arrived with his troops (made of orthodox Vlachs from Transylvania) until Moldova river. Shortly after this, a town named Baia was constructed (attested in 1300) by emigrant Saxons near Moldova river. This starting date for Moldova state was correctly interpreted by a lot of historians [38][39]

In 1290, Ladislaus the Cuman who protected the Cumans, Pechenegs and Orthodox believers was assassinated and a new Magyar king with other preferencies forced some leaders (including Negru Vodă) from the space between Olt and Carpathes to move over Carpathes and to contribute to the formation of Valachia[40]


Branches of Vlachs/Romanians and their territories

The Eastern Romance languages, sometimes known as the Vlach languages, are a group of Romance languages that developed in south-eastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. There is no official data from Balkan countries such as Greece, Bulgaria, Albania and Serbia.

  • Daco-Romanians (Romanians proper) about 23,681,610[1] speaking the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian), known by that name due to their location in the territory of ancient Dacia, who live in:
    • Romania – 16,869,816 (2011 Census)
    • Moldova – 2,815,000 (2004 Census)
    • Ukraine – 409,600; in southern Bessarabia northern Bukovina and between Dniester and Bug rivers (2001 Census)
    • Serbia – 35,330 (2011 census)[41]
    • Hungary – 35,641 (2011 Census)[42]
    • Bulgaria – 3,584 persons counted as Vlachs (may include Aromanians) and 891 as Romanians in 2011.[43]
  • Aromanians up to 500,000 (about 250,000 speakers of Aromanian)[2] live in:
    • Greece – 50,000,[44] mainly in the Pindus Mountains (Greece, like France, does not recognise any ethnic divisions, so there are no statistics kept and the Aromanians of Greece self-identify as Greeks and are accepted as such by the other Greeks. See Demographics of Greece)
    • Albania – 100,000 to 200,000 [45][46]
    • Romania – 26,500 [47]
    • Macedonia – 9,695 (Macedonian census 2002)[48]
  • Morlachs - The morlachs were shepherds that lived in the Dinaric Alps (western Balkans in modern use), seasonally migrating in search for better pastures for their sheep flocks (between mountains, in the summertime, and the sea shores, in the wintertime). They were a blend of previously Romanized indigenous peoples and new settled Roman army veterans and Roman colonists. According to the 2011 Czech population census, 22 persons identified themselves as Morlachs.

Territories with Vlach population

The evolution of the Eastern Romance languages through the ages.
The territories of the Bolohoveni.
The territories of the Bolohoveni according to V.A. Boldur.

Besides the separation of some groups of Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians during the Age of Migration, many other Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, as far north as Poland and as far west as Moravia (part of the modern Czech Republic), and the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs gradually disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.[50] They reached these regions in search of better pastures, and were called "Wallachians" ("Vlasi; Valaši") by the Slavic peoples.

Statal Entities mentioned in Middle Ages chronicles:

  • Wallachia – between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube ("Ţara Românească" in Romanian Language ; "Bassarab-Wallachia": "Bassarab's Wallachia" and "Ungro-Wallachia" or "Wallachia Transalpina" in administrative sources ; "Istro-Vlachia": "Danubian Wallachia" in Byzantine sources ; "Velacia secunda" in Spanish maps);
  • Moldavia – between the Carpathians and the Dniester river ("Bogdano-Wallachia" - Bogdan's Wallachia, "Moldo-Wallachia", "Maurovlachia", "Black Wallachia", "Moldovlachia" or "Rousso-Vlachia" in Byzantine sources, "Bogdan Iflak" or even "Wallachia" in Polish sources, "L'otra Wallachia" – the "other Wallachia]" – in Genovese sources and "Velacia tertia" in Spanish maps);
  • Transylvania (or "Ardeal", "Transylvanian Vlachs"[51] – between the Carpathians and the Hungarian plain, also "Wallachia interior" in administrative sources and "Velacia prima" in Spanish maps) ;
  • Bulgarian-Wallachian Empire between the Carpathians and the Balkan mountains ("Regnum Blachorum et Bulgarorum" in the documents and letters of Pope Innocent III).
  • Terra Prodnicorum or Terra Brodnici, mentioned by Pope Honorius III in 1222.They participated in 1223 at the Kalka battle, led by Ploskanea and supporting the Tatars. It was a Wallachian land near Galicia in the west, Volania in the north, Moldova in the south and Bolohoveni lands in the east. It was conquered by the Galician state.[52]
  • Bolokhoveni is an old Wallachian population spread between Kiev and Dniester river, in the Ukraine. Toponymy: Olohovets, Olshani, Voloschi, Vlodava. They were mentioned in the 11th to 13th centuries in the Slavonic chronicles. It was conquered by the Galician state.[53]

Regions, places:


In 2006, Bosch et al. attempted to analyze whether Vlachs are the descendants of Latinised Dacians, Illyrians, Thracians, Greeks, or a combination of these. No hypothesis could be proven because of the high degree of underlying genetic similarity of all the tested Balkan groups. The linguistic and cultural differences among various Balkan groups were thus deemed too weak to prevent significant gene flow among the above groups.[58]


Moravian "Valach" (in the meaning of a sheepherder) from Brumov, 1787

Due to the Vlachs’ extensive occupation with sheepherding, their ethnonym has come, since the Middle Ages, to be identified with the profession of the sheepherder (regardless of his language or a real ethnicity) in many Balkan and Central European languages.


Many Vlachs in mediaeval times were shepherds who drove their sheep through the mountains of south-eastern Europe. The Vlach shepherds reached as far as southern Poland and Moravia in the north by following the Carpathian range, the Dinaric Alps in the west, the Pindus mountains in the south, and the Caucasus Mountains in the east.[59] Vlachs have been referred to as "the perfect Balkan citizens" because they are "able to preserve their culture without resorting to war or politics, violence or dishonesty."[60]


The Vlachs in the Southern Balkan peninsula are self-defined as Αrmɨɲi [61] or Remeɲi, terms deriving from the Latin word Romani (Romans). This is where the neologism Aromanians, that is used in scientific/academic bibliography, comes from. The majority of the Vlachs live in Greece, Albania, Macedonia and Romania. The greater region of the Pindos mountain range is considered to be their historic cradle. The Vlach language was used mostly in oral speech while for written speech the Vlachs used primarily the Greek language.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Ethnologue report for language code: ron". Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  2. ^ a b "Council of Europe Parliamentary Recommendation 1333 (1997)". 1997-06-24. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  3. ^ a b "Ethnologue Estimate in Greece and all countries". Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Vlach". 
  6. ^ Schramm 1997, pp. 336-337.
  7. ^ Fine,J.:The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century."Traditionally scholars have seen the Dacians as ancestors of the modern Rumanians and Vlachs ."
  8. ^ According to Cornelia Bodea, Ştefan Pascu, Liviu Constantinescu : "România : Atlas Istorico-geografic", Academia Română 1996, ISBN 973-27-0500-0, chap. II, "Historical landmarks", p. 50 (english text), the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the low-Danube basin during the Migration period is an obvious fact : Thraco-Romans aren't vanished in the soil & Vlachs aren't appeared after 1000 years by spontaneous generation.
  9. ^ Badlands-Borderland : A History of Southern Albania/Northern Epirus [ILLUSTRATED] (Hardcover) by T.J. Winnifruth, ISBN 0-7156-3201-9, 2003, page 44 : "Romanized Illyrians, the ancestors of the modern Vlachs".
  10. ^ Ringe, Don. "Inheritance versus lexical borrowing: a case with decisive sound-change evidence." Language Log, January 2009.
  11. ^ "The name 'Vlach' or 'Wallach' applied to them by their neighbours is identical with the English Wealh or Welsh and means "stranger", but the Vlachs call themselves Aromani, or "Romans" (H.C. Darby, "The face of Europe on the eve of the great discoveries', in The New Cambridge Modern Hiostory, vol. 1, 1957:34).
  12. ^ Kelley L. Ross (2003). "Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History". The Proceedings of the Friesian School. Retrieved 2008-01-13. Note: The Vlach Connection 
  13. ^ Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. BRILL. 13 June 2013. pp. 42–.  
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ M. Manea, A. Pascu, B. Teodorescu, Istoria românilor din cele mai vechi timpuri până la revoluția din 1821, Ed. Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 1997
  17. ^ Gheorghe I. Brătianu, Marea Neagră de la origini până la cucerirea otomană, ediția a II-a rev., Ed. Polirom, Iași, 1999, p. 182, 193
  18. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar berserkjabana, in Drei lygisogur, ed. Å. Lagerholm (Halle/Saale, 1927), p. 29
  23. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p. 106, ISBN 9789047428800
  24. ^
  25. ^ A. Decei, V. Ciocîltan, “La mention des Roumains (Walah) chez Al-Maqdisi,”in Romano-arabica I, Bucharest, 1974, pp. 49–54
  26. ^ G. Murnu, Când si unde se ivesc românii întâia dată în istorie, în „Convorbiri Literare”, XXX, pp. 97-112
  27. ^ Mircea Muşat, Ion Ardeleanu-From ancient Dacia to modern Romania, p. 114
  28. ^ A. Decei, op. cit., p. 25.
  29. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta From the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p.132, ISBN 9789004175365
  30. ^ Ş. Papacostea, Românii în secolul al XIII-lea între cruciată şi imperiul mongol, Bucureşti, 1993, 36; A. Lukács, Ţara Făgăraşului, 156; T. Sălăgean, Transilvania în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIII-lea. Afirmarea regimului congregaţional, Cluj-Napoca, 2003, 26-27
  31. ^ Simon de Kéza, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, IV,
  32. ^ G. Popa-Lisseanu, Izvoarele istoriei Românilor, IV, Bucuresti, 1935, p. .32
  33. ^ K. HOREDT, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Bucureşti, 1958, p.109-131. IDEM, Siebenburgen im Fruhmittelalter, Bonn, 1986, p.111 sqq.
  35. ^ A. IONIŢĂ, Date noi privind colonizarea germană în Ţara Bârsei şi graniţa de est a regatului maghiar în cea de a doua jumătate a secolului al XII-lea, în RI, 5, 1994, 3-4.
  36. ^ J. DEER, Der Weg zur Goldenen Bulle Andreas II. Von 1222, în Schweizer Beitrage zur Allgemeinen Geschichte, 10, 1952, pp. 104-138
  37. ^ Stefan Pascu: A History of Transylvania, Wayne State Univ Pr, 1983, p. 57
  38. ^ Pavel Parasca, Cine a fost "Laslău craiul unguresc" din tradiţia medievală despre întemeierea Ţării Moldovei [=Who was "Laslău, Hungarian king" of the medieval tradition on the foundation of Moldavia]. In: Revista de istorie şi politică, An IV, Nr. 1.; ULIM;2011 ISSN: 1857-4076
  39. ^ O. Pecican, Dragoș-vodă - originea ciclului legendar despre întemeierea Moldovei. În „Anuarul Institutului de Istorie și Arheologie Cluj”. T. XXXIII. Cluj-Napoca, 1994, pp. 221-232
  40. ^ D. CĂPRĂROIU, ON THE BEGINNINGS OF THE TOWN OF CÂMPULUNG, ″Historia Urbana″, t. XVI, nr. 1-2/2008, pp. 37-64
  41. ^ Serbian Preliminary 2011 Census Results
  42. ^
  43. ^ WebDesign Ltd. "2011 Census Results". Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  44. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: rup". Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  45. ^ According to INTEREG - quoted by Eurominority: Aromanians in Albania, Albania's Aromanians; Reemerging into History
  46. ^ Arno Tanner. The forgotten minorities of Eastern Europe: the history and today of selected ethnic groups in five countries. East-West Books, 2004 ISBN 978-952-91-6808-8, p. 218: "In Albania, Vlachs are estimated to number as many as 200,000"
  47. ^ "Aromânii vor statut minoritar", in Cotidianul, 9 December 2006
  48. ^ Macedonian census 2002
  49. ^
  50. ^ Hammel, E. A. and Kenneth W. Wachter. "The Slavonian Census of 1698. Part I: Structure and Meaning, European Journal of Population". University of California. 
  51. ^ Peoples of Europe. Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2002 ISBN 0-7614-7378-5, ISBN 978-0-7614-7378-7. 
  52. ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992, pp 98-106
  53. ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992
  54. ^ a b c d Since Theophanes Confessor and Kedrenos, in : A.D. Xenopol, Istoria Românilor din Dacia Traiană, Nicolae Iorga, Teodor Capidan, C. Giurescu : Istoria Românilor, Petre Ș. Năsturel Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medie, vol. XVI, 1998
  55. ^ Map of Yugoslavia, file East, sq. C-E/f, Istituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara, in : Le Million, encyclopédie de tous les pays du monde, vol. IV, ed. Kister, Geneve, Switzerland, 1970, pp. 290-291, and some other old atlases - these names disappear after 1980.
  56. ^ Map of Yugoslavia, file East, sq. B/f, Istituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara, in : Le Million, encyclopédie de tous les pays du monde, vol. IV, ed. Kister, Geneve, Switzerland, 1970, pp. 290-291, and many other maps & old atlases - these names disappear after 1980.
  57. ^ Z. Konecny, F. Mainus, Stopami Minulosti: Kapitol z Dejin Moravy a Slezka/Traces of the Past: Chapters from the History of Moravia and Silezia, Brno:Blok,1979
  58. ^ E Bosch et al. Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, Volume 70, Issue 4 (p 459-487)
  59. ^ Silviu Dragomir: "Vlahii din nordul peninsulei Balcanice în evul mediu"; 1959, p. 172;
  60. ^ Winnifrith, Tom. "Vlachs". Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  61. ^ Phonetic rendering of the Vlach words according to the international phonetic alphabet.


  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, Aromanian dialect, Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • G. Weigand, Die Aromunen, Bd.Α΄-B΄, J. A. Barth (A.Meiner), Leipzig 1895–1894.
  • A. Keramopoulos, Ti einai oi koutsovlachoi [What are the Koutsovlachs?], publ 2 University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2000.
  • A.Hâciu, Aromânii, Comerţ. Industrie.Arte.Expasiune.Civiliytie, tip. Cartea Putnei, Focşani 1936.
  • Τ. Winnifrith, Τhe Vlachs.Τhe History of a Balkan People, Duckworth 1987
  • A. Koukoudis, Oi mitropoleis kai i diaspora ton Vlachon [Major Cities and Diaspora of the Vlachs], publ. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 1999.
  • Th Capidan, Aromânii, Dialectul Aromân, ed2 Εditură Fundaţiei Culturale Aromâne, Bucureşti 2005

Further reading

  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, The Aromanian dialect. A Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • Franck Vogel, a photo-essay on the Valchs published by GEO magazine (France), 2010.
  • John Kennedy Campbell, 'Honour Family and Patronage' A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Oxford University Press, 1974
  • The Watchmen, a documentary film by Alastair Kenneil and Tod Sedgwick (USA) 1971 describes life in the Vlach village of Samarina in Epiros, Northern Greece

External links

  • The Vlach Connection and Further Reflections on Roman History
  • Orbis Latinus: Wallachians, Walloons, Welschen
  • Vlachs in Greece
  • French Vlachs Association (in Vlach, EN and FR)
  • Studies on the Vlachs, by Asterios Koukoudis
  • Aromanian Vlachs: The Vanishing Tribes
  • Panhellenic Confederacy of Vlachs' Cultural Associations (in Greek)
  • Vlachs' in Greece (in Greek)
  • Consiliul A Tinirlor Armanj, Youth Aromanian community and their Projects (in Vlach, EN and RO)
  • Vlach in Serbia, Online Since 1999 (in Vlach, EN and RO)
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