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Voiced retroflex affricate

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Title: Voiced retroflex affricate  
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Subject: Voiced palato-alveolar affricate, List of consonants, Affricate consonant, Voiced retroflex stop, Polish language
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Voiced retroflex affricate

Voiced retroflex affricate
ɖ͡ʐ
d͡ʐ
IPA number 106 (137)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɖ​͡​ʐ
Unicode (hex) U+0256 U+0361 U+0290
X-SAMPA dz`
Kirshenbaum dz.
Sound
 ·

The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ͡ʐ, sometimes simplified to .[1] It occurs in such languages as Polish (the laminal affricate ) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).

Some scolars transcribe the laminal variant of this sound as /d͡ʒ/, even though it is not palatalized. In such cases the voiced palato-alveolar affricate is transcribed /d͡ʒʲ/.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Belarusian лічба [lʲiɖ͡ʐbä] 'number' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Wu [ɖ͡ʐaŋ] 'long' May be a stop [ɖ] instead.
Polish Standard[2][3] em     'jam' Laminal; it's transcribed /d͡ʒ/ by most Polish scolars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[4] dzwon [ɖ͡ʐvɔn̪] 'bell' Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡z/ into [d͡z].
Suwałki dialect[5]
Northern Qiang vvdhe [ʁɖ͡ʐə] 'star'
Russian[3][6] джем     'jam' Laminal. It is a very rare variant, and it is usually pronounced as a sequence [dʐ]. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian џем / em [ɖ͡ʐê̞m] 'jam' Laminal. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[7] ús [ɖ͡ʐuːs] 'juice' Laminal.
Torwali[8] ? [ɖ͡ʐiɡ̥] 'long' Contrasts with a palatal affricate.
Yi /rry [ɖ͡ʐɪ˧] 'tooth'

See also

References

  1. ^ Unlike the alveolar and palato-alveolar affricates, there is no obsolete ligature.
  2. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  3. ^ a b Hamann (2004:65)
  4. ^ http://www.gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=862&Itemid=17
  5. ^ http://www.gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=79&Itemid=58
  6. ^ Lightner (1972:67)
  7. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  8. ^ Lunsford (2001:16–20)

Bibliography

  • Hamann, Silke (2004), "Retroflex fricatives in Slavic languages" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 53–67,  
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (3): 373–378,  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  • Lightner, Theodore M. (1972), Problems in the Theory of Phonology, I: Russian phonology and Turkish phonology, Edmonton: Linguistic Research, inc 
  • Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington 
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