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Voiced velar stop

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Voiced velar stop

Voiced velar stop
ɡ
IPA number 110
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɡ
Unicode (hex) U+0261
X-SAMPA g
Kirshenbaum g
Braille ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
Sound
 ·

The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɡ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called single-story G , though the double-story G is considered an acceptable alternative. The Unicode character "Latin small letter G" (U+0067) renders as either a single-story G or a double-story G depending on font, while the character "Latin small letter script G" (U+0261) is always a single-story G, but is generally available only in fonts with the IPA Extensions character block.

There is also a voiced post-velar stop (also called pre-uvular) in some languages. For voiced pre-velar stop (also called post-palatal), see voiced palatal stop.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • Examples 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6

Features

Features of the voiced velar stop:

Occurrence[1]

Of the six stops that would be expected from the most common pattern world-wide—that is, three places of articulation plus voicing ([p b, t d, k ɡ])—[p] and [ɡ] are the most frequently missing, being absent in about 10% of languages that otherwise have this pattern. Absent stop [p] is an areal feature (see also Voiceless bilabial stop). Missing [ɡ], on the other hand, is widely scattered around the world. (A few languages, such as Modern Standard Arabic, are missing both.) It seems that [ɡ] is somewhat more difficult to articulate than the other basic stops. Ian Maddieson speculates that this may be due to a physical difficulty in voicing velars: Voicing requires that air flow into the mouth cavity, and the relatively small space allowed by the position of velar consonants means that it will fill up with air quickly, making voicing difficult to maintain in [ɡ] for as long as it is in [d] or [b]. This could have two effects: [ɡ] and [k] might become confused, and the distinction is lost, or perhaps a [ɡ] never develops when a language first starts making voicing distinctions. With uvulars, where there is even less space between the glottis and tongue for airflow, the imbalance is more extreme: Voiced [ɢ] is much rarer than voiceless [q].

Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [ɡ].

Examples

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ажыга [aˈʐəɡa] 'shovel' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe Shapsug гьэгуалъэ     'toy' Dialectal. Corresponds to [d͡ʒ] in other dialects.
Temirgoy чъыгы     'tree' Dialectal. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other dialects.
Albanian gomar [ˈɡomaɾ] 'donkey'
Arabic[2] Egyptian راجل [ˈɾɑːɡel] 'man' Corresponds to [dʒ] or [ʒ] in other dialects. See Arabic phonology
Gulf شقردي [ʃɪɡardi] 'reliable (person)'
Yemeni قال [ɡɑːl] '(he) said' Some dialects.
Armenian Eastern[3] գանձ     'treasure'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ɡana [ɡaːna] 'self' Used predominantly in Iraqi Koine. Corresponds to [dʒ] in Urmia, some Tyari and Jilu dialects.
Azerbaijani qara [ɡɑɾɑ] 'black'
Basque galdu [ɡaldu] 'lose'
Bengali গান [ɡan] 'song' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian гора [ɡora] 'wood'
Catalan[4] gros [ɡɾɔs] 'large' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Southern Min [ɡua] 'I' Only in colloquial speech.
Wu [ɡuɑ̃] 'crazy'
Xiang [ɡoŋ] 'together'
Chechen говр [ɡovr] 'horse'
Czech gram [ɡram] 'gram' See Czech phonology
Dutch All dialects zakdoek     'handkerchief' Allophone of /k/, occurring only before voiced consonants in native words. See Dutch phonology
Standard[5]
Many speakers goal     'goal' Only in loanwords. Some speakers may realize it as [ɣ] ~ [ʝ] ~ [χ] ~ [x] (like a normal Dutch g), or as [k].
Amelands goëd [ɡuə̯t] 'good'
English Australian[6] gaudy [ˈɡ̄oːdɪi̯] 'gaudy' Post-velar.[6] Allophone of /ɡ/ before /ʊ oː ɔ oɪ ʊə/.[6] See Australian English phonology
Most speakers gaggle [ˈɡæɡɫ̩] 'gaggle' See English phonology
French[7] gain [ɡæ̃] 'earnings' See French phonology
[8] ული [ˈɡuli] 'heart'
German ge [ˈlyːɡə] 'lie' See German phonology
Greek γκάρισμα/gkárisma [ˈɡɐɾizmɐ] 'donkey's bray' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati ગાવું/vu 'to sing' See Gujarati phonology
Hebrew גב [ɡav] 'back' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani गाना / گانا [ɡɑːnɑː] 'song' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian engedély [ɛŋɡɛdeːj] 'permission' See Hungarian phonology
Irish gaineamh [ˈɡanʲəw] 'sand' See Irish phonology
Italian[9] gare [ˈɡäːre] 'competitions' See Italian phonology
Japanese[10] がん•癌/gan [ɡãɴ] 'cancer' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian Baslaney гьанэ     'shirt' Dialectal. Corresponds to [dʒ] in other dialects.
Kagayanen[11] ? [kað̞aɡ] 'spirit'
Korean 메기/megi [meɡi] 'catfish' See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[12] agepack [ˈɑɡəpaːk] More often voiceless [k].[12] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian гром [ɡrɔm] 'thunder' See Macedonian phonology
Malay guni [ɡuni] 'sack'
Marathi वत [ɡəʋət] 'grass' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian gull [ɡʉl] 'gold' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[13] gmin     'plebs' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[14] língua [ˈɫĩɡwɐ] 'tongue' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਗਾਂ [ɡɑ̃ː] 'cow'
Romanian[15] gând [ɡɨnd] 'thought' See Romanian phonology
Russian[16] голова     'head' See Russian phonology
Slovak miazga [mjazɡa] 'lymph' See Slovak phonology
Somali gaabi [ɡaːbi] 'to shorten' See Somali phonology
Spanish[17] gato [ˈɡät̪o̞] 'cat' See Spanish phonology
Swedish god [ɡuːd̪] 'tasty' May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology
Turkish salgın [säɫˈɡɯn] 'epidemic' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian ґанок [ˈɡɑ.n̪ok] 'steps' See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian gasp [ɡɔsp] 'buckle' (n.)
Yanyuwa[18] [ɡ̄uɟ̠uɭu] 'sacred' Post-velar.[18] Contrasts plain and prenasalized versions
Yi /gge [ɡɤ˧] 'hear'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[19] gan [ɡaŋ] 'will be able' Depending on speaker and carefulness of speech, [ɡ] may be lenited to [ɣ]

See also

References

  1. ^ WALS Online : Chapter 5 – Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems
  2. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 16–17.
  3. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  4. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  5. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  6. ^ a b c Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  7. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  8. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  9. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  10. ^ Okada (1991), p. 94.
  11. ^ Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
  12. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  13. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  14. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  15. ^ DEX Online : [1]
  16. ^ Padgett (2003), p. 42.
  17. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  18. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 34-35.
  19. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.

Bibliography

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