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Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant

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Title: Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Polish language, Chuvash language, List of consonants, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Iotation
Collection: Alveolo-Palatal Consonants, Fricative Consonants
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Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant

Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant
IPA number 182
Entity (decimal) ɕ
Unicode (hex) U+0255
Kirshenbaum S;
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɕ ("c", plus the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ʑ).

Although the voiceless alveolo-palatal non-sibilant fricative has not been reported to occur in any language, it can be represented in the IPA as either ç͇ or ç̟.


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5


alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives [ɕ, ʑ]

Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe щы     'three'
Catalan Eastern and Majorcan[1] caixa [ˈkaɕə] 'box' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin 西安/Xī'ān     'Xi'an' Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/. See Mandarin phonology
Chuvash çиçĕм [ˈɕiɕ̬əm] 'lightning' Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/.
Danish sjæl [ɕeˀl] 'soul' See Danish phonology
Dutch Some speakers sjabloon [ɕäˈbloːn] 'template' May be [ʃ] or [sʲ] instead. See Dutch phonology
Guarani Paraguayan che [ɕɛ] 'I'
Japanese[2] /shio [ɕi.o] 'salt' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian щэ     'hundred'
Korean /si [ɕi] 'poem' See Korean phonology
Lower Sorbian[3] pśijaśel [ˈpɕijäɕɛl] 'friend'
Norwegian sjel [ɕe:l] 'soul' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto Wazirwola dialect لښکي [ˈləɕki] 'little, slight'
Polish[4] śruba     'screw' Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[5] Brazilian mexendo [me̞ˈɕẽ̞du] 'stirring', 'disturbing' Allophonic variation of /ʃ/. Contrasts with other sibilants only in onset. Argued both to be laminal [ʃ],[6] and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate",[5] same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ],[7] and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars.[8] Found in coda mainly before fricative, coronal and palatalized consonants in Brazil.[9][10] See Portuguese phonology
European (?) mesclas [ˈmɛɕklɐɕ] 'mixtures'
Many Brazilian dialects estatísticas [i̥ɕtɐˈtɕiɕtɕikɐs] 'statistics'
Some speakers [i̥stɐˈtɕiɕːikɐs]
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[11] ce [ɕɛ] 'what' Realized as [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian счастье     'happiness' Also represented by щ. Contrasts with /ʂ/, /s/, and /sʲ/. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[12] miš će [mîɕ t͡ɕe̞] 'the mouse will' Allophone of /ʃ/ before /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ/.[12] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Some speakers of Montenegrin śutra [ɕutra] 'tomorrow' Phonemically /sj/ or, in some cases, /s/.
Swedish Finland sjok [ɕuːk] 'chunk' Allophone of /ɧ/.
Sweden kjol     'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Tibetan Lhasa dialect བཞི་ [ɕi˨˧] 'four' Contrasts with /ʂ/.
Yi /xi [ɕi˧] 'thread'

See also


  1. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2007:145, 167)
  2. ^ Okada (1991:94)
  3. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181.
  4. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  5. ^ a b seqüências de (sibilante + africada alveopalatal) no português falado em Belo Horizonte Page 18 (Portuguese)
  6. ^ Análise acústica de sequências de fricativas seguidas de [i produzidas por japoneses aprendizes de português brasileiro] (Portuguese)
  7. ^ Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português (Portuguese)
  8. ^ Dialects of Brazil: the palatalization of the phonemes /t/ and /d/ Page 27 (Portuguese)
  9. ^ Pará Federal University – The pronunciation of /s/ and its variations across Bragança municipality's Portuguese (Portuguese)
  10. ^ Rio de Janeiro Federal University – The variation of post-vocallic /S/ in the speech of Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty (Portuguese)
  11. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  12. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:68)
  13. ^ Sjoberg (1963:11)


  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69,  
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97,  
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 143–172,  
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar 
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics 3: 175–213 
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