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William Alexander, Lord Stirling

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William Alexander, Lord Stirling

William Alexander (aka Lord Stirling)
Lord Stirling
Nickname(s) Earl of Stirling
Born 1726
New York City, Province of New York
Died January 15, 1783 (aged 56–57)
Albany, New York, U.S.A.
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch Continental Army
Years of service 1775–1783
Rank Major General
Commands held 1st New Jersey Regiment
Continental Army (2 months)
Battles/wars

William Alexander, known as Lord Stirling, (1726 New York City – 15 January 1783), was an American major-general during the American Revolutionary War. Alexander sought the title sometime after 1756, and was considered male-heir to the title of Earl of Stirling through Scottish lineage, and this was decided in a Scottish Court. The House of Lords ultimately over-ruled Scottish law and denied the title. A compromise was the title of Lord.[1]

Lord Stirling commanded the Conway Cabal.

Contents

  • Life 1
  • Title of nobility 2
  • American Revolution 3
  • Legacy 4
  • References 5
  • For further reading 6
  • External links 7

Life

Alexander was educated, ambitious, and proficient in mathematics and astronomy. He joined his mother, Mary Alexander, in a successful business and, in 1747, married Sarah Livingston, the daughter of Philip Livingston (1686-1749) and sister of Governor William Livingston. The couple had two daughters and one son William. One of his daughters, Mary Alexander, would marry a wealthy merchant named Robert Watts of New York.[2] Another daughter Catherine was the wife of Congressman William Duer.

Title of nobility

The title Earl of Stirling became dormant or expired upon the death of Henry Alexander, the 5th Earl of Stirling. Williams father, James Alexander, who had fled from Scotland in 1716 after participating in the Jacobite rising, obviously did not seek the title. Upon his death William lay claim to the title and filed suit. His relationship to the 5th Earl was not through heirs of the body, but through heir male collateral and the inheritance by Proximity of blood had been questioned. It was settled in his favor, by a unanimous vote of a jury of twelve in a Scottish court in 1759, and William claimed the disputed title of Earl of Stirling. It is not clear if the case went to court because of an unfavorable answer from the Lord Lyon King of Arms concerning the peerage.[3]

Legal opinion was that this was a "Scottish heir" problem so the title right was solved. This might have been unopposed, as indisputable peerage, except there was a catch. The two sponsors, Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, and John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, encouraged William through representatives to seek the title. The goal was vast land holdings in America that the holder of the title was to enjoy. The sponsors were to receive money and land if Alexander was successful. With this in mind William decided to petition the House of Lords. A friend and professional agent in Scotland, Andrew Stuart (1725–1801), wrote and advised William not to petition the House of Lords. He felt that the right of indisputable peerage demanded that William just claim the titles as others had done. His opinion was that others lay similar claims to titles so he would not be opposed. It is possible William did not want to commit a crime, or be found out, and if the House of Lords advanced his claim it would be forever legal. One problem is that to prove his claim in court two old men were used to testify that William did in fact descend from the 1st Earl through his uncle named John Alexander. This might have been persuasive in a Scottish court but might be considered dubious in England.[4]

Stirling inherited a large fortune from his father. He dabbled in Royal Society of Arts awarded Lord Stirling a gold medal for accepting the society's challenge to establish viticulture and winemaking in the North American colonies by cultivating 2,100 grape (V. vinifera) vines on his New Jersey estate.[5]

American Revolution

When the American Revolutionary War began, Stirling was made a colonel in the New Jersey colonial militia. Because he was wealthy, he outfitted the militia at his own expense and was willing to spend his own money in support of the Patriot cause. He distinguished himself early by leading a group of volunteers in the capture of an armed British naval transport.

The Second Continental Congress appointed him brigadier general in the Continental Army in March 1776. At theBattle of Long Island, (also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights), in August of that year, Stirling led the stalwart, well-trained 1st Maryland Regiment (also known as the "Maryland Line") in repeated attacks against a superior British Army force under command of Gen. Sir William Howe at the Old Stone House near what is today named the Gowanus Creek (later Gowanus Canal and Bay) which empties into Upper New York Bay and took heavy casualties. The "Redcoats" had made a wide flanking attack sweeping to the east through the lightly-guarded Jamaica Pass, one of a series of low entrances through the ridge line of hills running east to west through the center of Long Island, catching the Patriot forces on their left side. Outnumbered 25–1, his brigade was eventually overwhelmed and Stirling himself was taken prisoner during the disciplined and measured retreat, but not before repelling the British forces long enough to allow the main body of Washington's Continental troops to escape to defensive positions at Brooklyn Heights, along the East River shoreline. Later, under the cover of a miraculous fog which enveloped the East River, and the rear-guard covering actions of the Marylanders, Washington was able to barge his remaining troops and equipment across back to Manhattan Island and New York Town and so save his army and the Patriot cause for another more opportune fight. Because of his actions at Long Island, one newspaper called him "the bravest man in America" and he was praised by both Washington and the British for his bravery and audacity. Later a commemorative monument was erected at the site of the military engagements and embattled retreat and the plot of land deeded to the State of Maryland near Prospect Park as a sacred parcel of "blood-soaked Maryland soil".

Lord Alexander was released in a prisoner exchange, in return for governor Maj. Gen. Lord Stirling Quarters.[7] In January 1780, he led an ineffective raid against Staten Island on the western shores of New York Bay. Lord Stirling also played a part in exposing the "Conway Cabal", a conspiracy of disaffected Continental officers looking to remove Washington as Commander-in Chief and replace him with General Horatio Gates.

When Washington took his army south from above New York Town in 1781, joining French general Comte de Rochambeau from Newport, Rhode Island, with an allied army of Royal French and German troops to catch Lord Cornwallis at his temporary base on the York River and the Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown, Virginia, he appointed Stirling commander of the elements of the Northern Army that he left behind to guard New York and he was sent up the Hudson River to Albany. Stirling, always a heavy drinker, was in poor health by this time, suffering from severe gout and rheumatism. He died in Albany on the 15th January 1783. His untimely death just months before the official end of the War for American Independence with the Treaty of Paris of 1783 is the probable reason that he is not as well known today as many of the other generals. Still, his significant contributions made him one of the most important figures of the American Revolution. He was buried in the Churchyard of Trinity Church, facing the historic Wall Street district (adjoining nearby St. Paul's Chapel), in New York City.[8]

Legacy

References

  1. ^ Abbe-Barrymore (1928). "Dictionary of American Biography". Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. pp. 175–76. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
  2. ^ "Maj.Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling and Sarah Livingston". 2004. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  3. ^ Lawrence, Ruth (2003). "Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling and Sara Livingston". InterMedia Enterprises. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
  4. ^ Duer, William Alexander (1847). "The Life of William Alexander. Earl of Sterling". Wiley and Putnam, New York. pp. 27–49. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
  5. ^ McCormick, Richard P. "The Royal Society, The Grape and New Jersey" in Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Volume LXXXI, Number 2, (April 1953); and later in Journal of the Royal Society of Arts (January 1962).
  6. ^ "This page has been moved". state.nj.us. Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  7. ^ "National Historic Landmarks & National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania" (Searchable database). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture & Archaeology. Retrieved 2012-11-02.  Note: This includes David C. Stacks (June 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Maj. Gen. Lord Stirling Quarters" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-03. 
  8. ^ William Alexander at Find a Grave
  9. ^ "About Us/Admissions". MS 51 – William Alexander Middle School. Retrieved 1 December 2010. 
  10. ^ Mustac, Frank (11 September 2009). "Living-history 'Lord Stirling 1770s Festival' is October 4 at Environmental Education Center". New Jersey On-Line. Retrieved 1 December 2010. 

For further reading

  • William Alexander, Lord Stirling: George Washington's Noble General, Paul David Nelson, University of Alabama Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8173-5083-3
  • Alexander, William, pages 175/76 in: Dictionary of American biography, Volume I. Edited by Alan Johnson, Publisher: C. Scribner's Sons New York, 1943
  • The life of William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, Major-General in the Army of the United States during the Revolution: with selections from his correspondence. Collections of New Jersey Historical Society, Vol. II. By his Grandson William Alexander Duer. Published by Wiley & Putnam, New York 1847

External links

  • Works related to William Alexander, Lord Stirling at Wikisource
    •  
    • "Stirling, William Alexander, (titular) Earl of".  
    • "Alexander, William".  


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