World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Women in Myanmar

Article Id: WHEBN0031578852
Reproduction Date:

Title: Women in Myanmar  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Internal conflict in Myanmar, Women in Myanmar, LGBT history in Myanmar, List of volcanoes in Myanmar, Kingdom of Mrauk U
Collection: Burmese People, History of Myanmar, Women in Myanmar
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Women in Myanmar

Women in Burma
A Burmese woman in traditional garb, c. 1920.
Gender Inequality Index
Value 0.437 (2012)
Rank 80th
Maternal mortality (per 100,000) 200 (2010)
Women in parliament 4.0% (2012)
Females over 25 with secondary education 18.0% (2010)
Women in labour force 75.0% (2011)
Global Gender Gap Index
Value NR (2012)
Rank NR out of 136

Historically, women in Burma (Myanmar) have had a unique social status in Burmese society. According to the research done by Daw Mya Sein, Burmese women "for centuries – even before recorded history" owned a "high measure of independence" and had retained their "legal and economic rights" despite the influences of Buddhism and Hinduism. Burma once had a matriarchal system that includes the exclusive right to inherit oil wells and the right to inherit the position as village head. Burmese women were also appointed to high offices by Burmese kings, can become chieftainesses and queens.[1]

Contents

  • Traditional dress 1
  • Love and marriage 2
  • Women's rights 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Traditional dress

The htamein (ထမီ ) is one of the traditional dresses of Burmese women.[1][2] This skirtcloth or lower body wrapper was worn by women during the Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1855) as a wrap-around skirt, or sometimes as a folded clothing material placed "tightly across the abdomen slightly left center of the waist".[2] In comparison, Burmese men wore the traditional lower garment known as the pahso (ပုဆိုး ).[2]

Love and marriage

Marriages were previously allowed between Burmese women and male foreigners provided that the divisional courts in Burma were informed within 21 days of advance notice. However, in May 2010, the government of Burma disallowed conducting of marriage ceremonies between Burmese women and male foreigners.[3] One of the suggested reasons was to avoid human trafficking.[3] Burmese women become victims of human traffickers and traded for the sex industry in Pakistan and Thailand.[4]

To some extent, arranged marriages was also a part of Burmese tradition, however, the Burmese women have the right to refuse the offer of being betrothed to the parents' chosen partner for her. At present, young Burmese women can choose to marry someone for love.[3]

Women's rights

In 2000, the Asian Women's Resource Exchange (AWORC) published a report entitled Human Rights in Burma from the Forum News (August 1998) describing that by tradition, Burmese women are maternal self-abnegators, meaning that these women "consistently forego their own needs in order to give their children first priority." The report also indicated that rural and urban Burmese women were affected by the deteriorating economic climate in Burma. As a result, Burmese families were "increasingly prioritizing the rights of males over females to limited resources." These changes affected the access of Burmese women to nutrition, medical services, vocational training, and other educational opportunities. Burmese women became unwilling porters and unpaid laborers for the military, including becoming victims of slavery, murder, torture, rape, and attacks.[5] Historically, urban Burmese women "enjoyed high levels of social power" but later became confronted with restrictions on speech and limitations in acquiring high level positions in both private and public offices.[5] According to AWORC, only a few number of Burmese women receive education related to reproductive rights and safe birth control practices, thus making them prone to being infected by HIV and AIDS.[5]

In January 2008, BBC News featured Burmese Kayan Lahwi women who became tourist attractions in Thailand because of the tradition of wearing coils of brass around their necks. The rings of brass push the "women's shoulders and ribs down" throughout several years giving the effect as if the necks had been stretched, thus described as sporting "unnaturally long, giraffe-like necks."[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Daw Mya Sein. "Women in Burma", The Atlantic, Atlantic Magazine, February 1958.
  2. ^ a b c Falconer, John and Luca Invernizzi Tettoni. Burmese Design and Architecture, Tuttle Publishing, page 189.
  3. ^ a b c Thae Thae. Burmese Women Not Allowed to Marry Foreigners, The Irrawaddy, May 25, 2010.
  4. ^ Trafficking, Burma/Myanmar, Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women
  5. ^ a b c Human Rights in Burma, Asian Women's Resource Exchange (AWORC), 2000
  6. ^ Harding, Andrew. Burmese women in Thai 'human zoo', January 30, 2008.

External links

  • Women's League of Burma
  • Karen Women Organization
  • Burmese women in Thai 'human zoo'
  • The war on Burma's women
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.