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Woolworth Building

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Woolworth Building

Woolworth Building
c.1913
Record height
Tallest in the world from 1913 to 1930[I]
Preceded by Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower
Surpassed by 40 Wall Street
General information
Location 233 Broadway
Manhattan, New York City
Construction started 1910
Completed 1913
Opening April 24, 1913
Cost US$13.5 million
Owner Witkoff Group
Height
Roof 241.4 m (792 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 57
Lifts/elevators 34
Design and construction
Architect Cass Gilbert
Structural engineer Gunvald Aus and Kort Berle
Woolworth Building
Woolworth Building is located in New York City
Coordinates
Area 0.5 acres (0.2 ha)
NRHP Reference # 66000554
Significant dates
Added to NRHP 11/13/1966
Designated NYCL April 12, 1983
References
[1][2][3]

The Woolworth Building, at 233 Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, designed by architect Cass Gilbert and completed in 1913, is an early US skyscraper. The original site for the building was purchased by F. W. Woolworth and his real estate agent Edward J. Hogan by April 15, 1910, from the Trenor Luther Park Estate and other owners for $1.65 million. By January 18, 1911, Woolworth and Hogan had acquired the final site for the project, totaling $4.5 million. More than a century after the start of its construction, it remains, at 241.4 meters (792 ft), one of the one-hundred tallest buildings in the United States as well as one of the twenty tallest buildings in New York City. It has been a National Historic Landmark since 1966,[4][5][6] and a New York City landmark since 1983.[7]

Contents

  • Architecture 1
  • History 2
  • Tenants 3
  • In popular culture 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Architecture

The Woolworth Building was designed in the neo-Gothic style by the architect Cass Gilbert, whom Frank Woolworth commissioned in 1910 to design a 20-story office building [7] as the F. W. Woolworth Company's new corporate headquarters on Broadway, between Park Place and Barclay Street in Lower Manhattan, opposite City Hall. Originally designed to be 420 feet (130 m) high, the building was eventually elevated to 792 feet (241 m). At its opening, the Woolworth Building was 60 stories tall and had over 5,000 windows.[8] The construction cost was US$13.5 million. With Irving National Exchange Bank Woolworth set up the Broadway-Park Place Company to finance the building, but by May 1914, had purchased all of the shares from the bank, thus owning the building outright. On completion, the Woolworth building topped the record set by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower as the world's tallest building.

The building opened on April 24, 1913. President Woodrow Wilson turned the lights on by way of a button in Washington, D.C. that evening.[8]

Under construction

Given its resemblance to European Gothic cathedrals, the structure was called "The Cathedral of Commerce" by the Reverend S. Parkes Cadman in a booklet of the same title published in 1916.[8][9][10] It remained the tallest building in the world until the construction of 40 Wall Street and the Chrysler Building, also in New York City, in 1930; an observation deck on the 57th floor attracted visitors until 1941.

The building's tower, flush with the main frontage on Broadway, joins an office block base with a narrow interior court for light. The exterior decoration was cast in limestone-colored, glazed architectural terra-cotta panels.[8] Strongly articulated piers, carried—without interrupting cornices—right to the pyramidal cap, give the building its upward thrust. The Gothic detailing concentrated at the highly visible crown is over scaled, able to be read from the street level several hundred feet below.

Engineers Gunvald Aus and Kort Berle designed the steel frame, supported on massive caissons that penetrate to the bedrock. The high-speed elevators were innovative, and the building's high office-to-elevator ratio made the structure profitable.

The ornate, cruciform lobby, is "one of the most spectacular of the early 20th century in New York City".[7] It is covered in Skyros veined marble,[9] has a vaulted ceiling, mosaics, a stained-glass ceiling light and bronze fittings. Over the balconies of the mezzanine are the murals Labor and Commerce. Corbel sculptures include Gilbert with a model of the building, Aus taking a girder's measurements, and Woolworth counting nickels.[7][9] Woolworth's private office, revetted in marble in the French Empire style, has been preserved.

The building's facade was restored between 1977 and 1981 by the Ehrenkrantz Group,[9] during which much of the terra-cotta was replaced with concrete and Gothic ornament was removed.[7]

History

The building was owned by the Woolworth company for 85 years until 1998, when the Venator Group (formerly the F. W. Woolworth Company) sold it to the Witkoff Group for $155 million.[11] Until recently, that company kept a presence in the building through a Foot Locker store (Foot Locker is the successor to the Woolworth Company).

The building's crown

Prior to its 2001 destruction, the World Trade Center was often photographed in such a way that the Woolworth Building could be seen between 1 and 2 World Trade Center. After the September 11, 2001, attacks a few blocks away, the building was without electricity, water and telephone service for a few weeks and had broken windows and the top turret was damaged by falling rubble. Increased post-attack security restricted access to most of the ornate lobby, previously a tourist attraction.[12]

The structure has a long association with higher education, housing a number of Fordham University schools in the early 20th century. Today, the building houses, among other tenants, TTA Inc., Control Group Inc. and the New York University School of Continuing and Professional Studies' Center for Global Affairs.

In August 2012, The New York Times reported that an investment group led by Alchemy Properties, a New York developer, bought the top 30 floors of the landmark on July 31 for $68 million from the Witkoff Group and Cammeby's International.[13] The firm plans to renovate the space into luxury apartments and convert the penthouse into a five-level living space.[14] The lower 28 floors are still owned by the Witkoff Group and Cammeby International, who plan to lease them as office space.

The project will cost approximately $150 million, according to the article, including its $68 million purchase price. In August 2014, the New York Attorney General's office approved Alchemy's offering plan for condos at the newly branded Woolworth Tower Residences.[15] The $110 million price tag for the building's penthouse unit is the highest ask ever for an apartment in downtown Manhattan.[16]

Part of the lobby

Tenants

At the building's completion, the F. W. Woolworth Company occupied only one and a half floors of the building,[7] but, as the owner, profited from renting space out to others, including the Irving National Exchange Bank and Columbia Records. Columbia Records had moved into the building in 1913 and housed a recording studio in it.[17] In 1917, Columbia made a recording of a dixieland band, the Original Dixieland Jass Band in this studio.[18][19]

In popular culture

  • The Lincoln American Tower in Memphis, Tennessee, built in 1924, is a small replica of the building, standing at one-third its height.
  • On film, the building has been referenced several times: In the 1949 film On the Town, it is one of the places Chip wants to visit because his out-dated travel guide (printed in 1905) lists it as the tallest building in the world.
  • In the 2007 Disney film Enchanted, the building is the site of the film's grand climax.
  • In the opening scenes of the 2008 film Cloverfield, the building is depicted collapsing after Clover critically damages it.[20]
  • The building is shown as the headquarters of Meade Publications in the 2006 television series, Ugly Betty.[20]
  • In the 2007 novel Peak, the protagonist is arrested for climbing the building.
  • The "Woodworld Building" in the 2008 video game Grand Theft Auto IV mimics the Woolworth Building in its name, architectural style and street address number.
  • In Baz Luhrmann's 2013 adaptation of The Great Gatsby, Nick Carraway works in the building as a stock broker for Chase. In an opening scene, a spectacular tilt down from the top of the building is shown.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Woolworth Building at Emporis
  2. ^ Woolworth Building at SkyscraperPage
  3. ^ Woolworth Building at Structurae
  4. ^ "Woolworth Building". National Historic Landmark summary listing.  
  5. ^ Patricia Heintzelman and Cecil McKithan (January 6, 1978). "The Woolworth Building" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. National Park Service. 
  6. ^ "The Woolworth Building--Accompanying 3 photos, exterior, from 1975." (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination.  
  7. ^ a b c d e f New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Postal, Matthew A. (ed. and text); Dolkart, Andrew S. (text). (2009) Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.) New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1, p. 25.
  8. ^ a b c d "Study for Woolworth Building, New York".  
  9. ^ a b c d  , p. 67.
  10. ^ Sutton, Philip. "The Woolworth Building: The Cathedral of Commerce". Blogs.  
  11. ^ recordonline.com - The Times Herald-Record, serving New York’s Hudson Valley and the Catskills Archived June 1, 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Fendrich, Laurie (January 8, 2008). "American Architectural Wonder: Keep Out".  
  13. ^ Higgins, Michelle (August 7, 2012). "Luxury Living in Old Temple of the 5 and Dime".  
  14. ^ Polsky, Sara (August 7, 2012). "Woolworth Building's Top Floors Will Become Luxury Condos".  
  15. ^ Samtani, Hiten (August 21, 2012). "Revealed: Floor plans for $110M Woolworth penthouse: PHOTOS".  
  16. ^ Perlberg, Heather (June 2, 2014). "NYC Woolworth Tower Condo Priced at Record $110 Million".  
  17. ^ Hoffman, Frank, Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, New York & London : Routledge, 1993 & 2005, Volume 1. Cf. p. 212, article on "Columbia (Label)".
  18. ^ Cogan, Jim; Clark, William, Temples of sound : inside the great recording studios, San Francisco : Chronicle Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8118-3394-1. Cf. chapter on Columbia Studios.
  19. ^ "The Woolworth Building", NYC Architecture
  20. ^ a b Soll, Lindsay (October 17, 2008). "The Deep Dive: Made in NYC".  

Bibliography

  • Fenske, Gail. The Skyscraper and the City: The Woolworth Building and the Making of Modern New York. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-226-24141-8.
  • Heintzleman, Patricia; Cecil McKithan (January 23, 1978). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: The Woolworth Building".  
  • "Big Town Big Picture: The Woolworth Building". Daily News. March 11, 2009. p. 23.

External links

  • Official lobby tours website
  • The Woolworth Tower Residences official website
  • "Designation List 164: The Woolworth Building", New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, April 12, 1983
  • "Pride and Humility in the Woolworth Building and in Ourselves" by John Stern, from beautyofnyc.org
  • The Woolworth Building from GreatBuildings.com
  • Medieval New York website from Fordham University, with construction details and photo images of the Woolworth Building
  • Margaret Herman, Gilbert's Woolworth Building, Smarthistory
Records
Preceded by
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower
Tallest building in the world
1913–1930
Succeeded by
40 Wall Street
Tallest building in the United States
1913–1930
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