World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

World Figure Skating Championships

Article Id: WHEBN0000229356
Reproduction Date:

Title: World Figure Skating Championships  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Herma Szabo, Dick Button, Michelle Kwan, Phyllis Johnson, Ludwig Wrede
Collection: Recurring Sporting Events Established in 1896, World Championships, World Figure Skating Championships
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

World Figure Skating Championships

The World Figure Skating Championships ("Worlds") is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union. Medals are awarded in the categories of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Generally held in March, the World Championships are considered the most prestigious of the ISU Championships, which also include the European Championships, the Four Continents Championships, and the World Junior Championships. With the exception of the Olympic title, a world title is considered to be the highest competitive achievement in figure skating.

The corresponding competition for junior-level skaters is the World Junior Championships. The corresponding competition for senior-level synchronized skating is the World Synchronized Skating Championships and for junior level the World Junior Synchronized Skating Championships.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Cancellations 1.1
  • Eligibility and qualifying 2
  • Medalists 3
    • Men 3.1
    • Ladies 3.2
    • Pairs 3.3
    • Ice dancing 3.4
  • Records 4
  • Cumulative medal count 5
  • References 6
  • Sources 7
  • External links 8

History

The Internationale Eislauf-Vereingung (International Skating Union) formed in 1892 to govern international competition in speed and figure skating. The first Championship, known as the Championship of the Internationale Eislauf-Vereingung, was held in Saint Petersburg in 1896. The event had four competitors and was won by Gilbert Fuchs.[1]

The championships were presumed all-male since competitive skating was generally viewed as a male sport, however there were no specific rules regarding the gender of competitors. In 1902 Madge Syers entered the championships, and won the silver medal.[2] The 1903 ISU Congress considered gender issues but passed no new rules. The 1905 Congress established a second class (ISU Championships rather than World Championships) ladies competition. Winners were to be known as ISU, not World Champions. Men's and Ladies events were normally held separately. The first ladies competition was in 1906 and held in Davos,[2] won by Syers.

The first pairs competition was held in St. Petersburg in 1908,[3] even though in some countries pairs competition was illegal and considered indecent. One such country was Japan, which had applied for the Winter Olympics in 1940. Early championships for both ladies and pairs, previously titled merely as the ISU Championships, were retroactively given World Championship status in 1924.[3]

In the early years judges were invited by the host country and were often local. At the 1927 ladies' event held in Oslo, three of the five judges were Norwegian. The three Norwegian judges gave first place to Norwegian competitor Sonja Henie, while the Austrian and German judges placed defending champion Herma Szabo first. The controversial result stood, giving Henie her first world title; however following the controversy the ISU introduced a rule allowing no more than one judge per country on the panel.[4]

The 1930 championships in New York City combined all three competitions into one event for the first time, and was also the first championships to be held outside Europe.[3] Ice dancing entered the program officially in 1952,[3] after having been an unofficial part of the championships since 1936.

In 1960, the number of participants per country was limited to a maximum of three per discipline.

Compulsory figures were removed from the World Championships in 1991.

The 6.0 system was used for judging until the 2004 championships, and the ISU Judging System was used from the 2005 edition onwards.

In the years of the Winter Olympics during the last few decades, when the World Championships are held around a month after the Olympic Games, there have been cases of the large proportion of Olympic medalists not attending. Reasons for forgoing the post-Olympics Worlds have included skaters needing rest for physical and mental exhaustion, and/or Olympic medalists wanting to go professional to cash in on their Games success. The ISU has begun discussing lengthening the time between the Games and the Worlds.[5]

Cancellations

The World Figure Skating Championships have been cancelled 15 times in its history: from 1915–1921 due to World War I, from 1940–1946 due to World War II, and in 1961 as a result of the loss of the entire American team in the crash of Sabena Flight 548.

The 2011 Championships, originally slated to be held in Tokyo, were initially considered for cancellation following the 2011 Japan earthquake, but were instead moved to Moscow.

Eligibility and qualifying

Since 1996,[6] skaters must be at least fifteen before July 1 of the previous year. Thus, to compete at the 2010 Worlds, skaters had to be 15 or older before July 1, 2009. A skater must turn 15 before it becomes July 1 in their place of birth – even an hour later is not accepted by the ISU.[7] The World Junior Championships is the corresponding competition for skaters aged 13 to 19 (or up to 21 for male pair skaters and ice dancers) who are not old enough for senior Worlds or do not qualify. For a few years after the introduction of the 1996 age rules, a loophole existed for underage skaters who had medaled at Junior Worlds.[8] The loophole was eventually eliminated. A few who had not medaled at Junior Worlds but had competed at senior Worlds before the introduction of the rules, such as Tara Lipinski of the United States, were allowed to continue competing in senior Worlds due to the Grandfather clause.

Since 2010, skaters must achieve minimum technical elements scores (TES) in the short and free programs at a prior international event in the ongoing or preceding season.[9] The short and free scores may be attained at different international events. After an ISU congress voted to eliminate the qualifying rounds, the TES minimums were raised for the 2013 World Championships.

Competitors are entered by country. Each member nation of the International Skating Union is allowed one to three entries in each discipline based on the nation's performance at the previous championship. Member nations select their entries according to their own criteria. Some countries rely on the results of their national championships while others have more varied criteria, which may include success at certain international events or specific technical requirements. All of the selected skaters must meet the ISU's age and TES requirements.

Because of the large number of entries at the World Championships, for some years the event included qualifying rounds for men and ladies. After the 2006 championships in Calgary, Canada, the ISU Congress voted to eliminate the qualifying round. It was later reintroduced and then eliminated again after the 2012 World Championships. After the short program, the top 24 single skaters and top 20 pairs advance to the free skate. In ice dance, the top 30 teams in the compulsory dance advanced to the original dance, and the top 24 after that segment advanced to the free dance.

Countries earn a second or third entry for the following year's competition by earning points through skater placement. The points are equal to the sum of the placements of the country's skaters (top two if they have three). Entries do not carry over and so countries must continue to earn their second or third spot every year. If a country only has one skater/team, that skater/team must place in the top ten to earn a second entry and in the top two to earn three entries to next year's championships. If a country has two skaters/teams, the combined placement of those teams must be 13 or fewer to qualify 3 entries, and 28 or fewer to keep their two entries. If they do not do so, they only have one entry for the following year.

Number of skaters/teams To earn 3 entries To earn 2 entries
1 Place in the top 2 Place in the top 10
2 Total placements is equal to or less than 13 Total placements is equal to or less than 28
3 Top two placements is equal to or less than 13 Top two placements is equal to or less than 28

There are exceptions if a skater is forced to withdraw in the middle of the competition due to a medical emergency or equipment problems.

Medalists

Men

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze
1896 St. Petersburg Gilbert Fuchs Gustav Hügel Georg Sanders
1897 Stockholm Gustav Hügel Ulrich Salchow Johan Lefstad
1898 London Henning Grenander Gustav Hügel Gilbert Fuchs
1899 Davos Gustav Hügel Ulrich Salchow Edgar Syers
1900 Davos Gustav Hügel Ulrich Salchow no other competitors
1901 Stockholm Ulrich Salchow Gilbert Fuchs no other competitors
1902 London Ulrich Salchow Madge Syers (Woman) Martin Gordan
1903 St. Petersburg Ulrich Salchow Nicolai Panin Kolomenkin Max Bohatsch
1904 Berlin Ulrich Salchow Heinrich Burger Martin Gordan
1905 Stockholm Ulrich Salchow Max Bohatsch Per Thorén
1906 Munich Gilbert Fuchs Heinrich Burger Bror Meyer
1907 Vienna Ulrich Salchow Max Bohatsch Gilbert Fuchs
1908 Troppau Ulrich Salchow Gilbert Fuchs Heinrich Burger
1909 Stockholm Ulrich Salchow Per Thorén Ernest Herz
1910 Davos Ulrich Salchow Werner Rittberger Andor Szende
1911 Berlin Ulrich Salchow Werner Rittberger Fritz Kachler
1912 Manchester Fritz Kachler Werner Rittberger Andor Szende
1913 Vienna Fritz Kachler Willy Böckl Andor Szende
1914 Helsinki Gösta Sandahl Fritz Kachler Willy Böckl
1915–
1921
Not held because of World War I
1922 Stockholm Gillis Grafström Fritz Kachler Willy Böckl
1923 Vienna Fritz Kachler Willy Böckl Gösta Sandahl
1924 Manchester Gillis Grafström Willy Böckl Ernst Oppacher
1925 Vienna Willy Böckl Fritz Kachler Otto Preißecker
1926 Berlin Willy Böckl Otto Preißecker John Page
1927 Davos Willy Böckl Otto Preißecker Karl Schäfer
1928 Berlin Willy Böckl Karl Schäfer Hugo Distler
1929 London Gillis Grafström Karl Schäfer Ludwig Wrede
1930 New York City Karl Schäfer Roger Turner Georges Gautschi
1931 Berlin Karl Schäfer Roger Turner Ernst Baier
1932 Montreal Karl Schäfer Montgomery Wilson Ernst Baier
1933 Zürich Karl Schäfer Ernst Baier Marcus Nikkanen
1934 Stockholm Karl Schäfer Ernst Baier Erich Erdös
1935 Budapest Karl Schäfer Jack Dunn Dénes Pataky
1936 Paris Karl Schäfer Graham Sharp Felix Kaspar
1937 Vienna Felix Kaspar Graham Sharp Elemér Terták
1938 Berlin Felix Kaspar Graham Sharp Herbert Alward
1939 Budapest Graham Sharp Freddie Tomlins Horst Faber
1940–
1946
Not held because of World War II
1947 Stockholm Hans Gerschwiler Dick Button Arthur Apfel
1948 Davos Dick Button Hans Gerschwiler Ede Király
1949 Paris Dick Button Ede Király Edi Rada
1950 London Dick Button Ede Király Hayes Alan Jenkins
1951 Milan Dick Button James Grogan Helmut Seibt
1952 Paris Dick Button James Grogan Hayes Alan Jenkins
1953 Davos Hayes Alan Jenkins James Grogan Carlo Fassi
1954 Oslo Hayes Alan Jenkins James Grogan Alain Giletti
1955 Vienna Hayes Alan Jenkins Ronnie Robertson David Jenkins
1956 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Hayes Alan Jenkins Ronnie Robertson David Jenkins
1957 Colorado Springs David Jenkins Tim Brown Charles Snelling
1958 Paris David Jenkins Tim Brown Alain Giletti
1959 Colorado Springs David Jenkins Donald Jackson Tim Brown
1960 Vancouver Alain Giletti Donald Jackson Alain Calmat
1961 Event cancelled after the Sabena Flight 548 crash
1962 Prague Donald Jackson Karol Divín Alain Calmat
1963 Cortina d'Ampezzo Donald McPherson Alain Calmat Manfred Schnelldorfer
1964 Dortmund Manfred Schnelldorfer Alain Calmat Karol Divín
1965 Colorado Springs Alain Calmat Scott Allen Donald Knight
1966 Davos Emmerich Danzer Wolfgang Schwarz Gary Visconti
1967 Vienna Emmerich Danzer Wolfgang Schwarz Gary Visconti
1968 Geneva Emmerich Danzer Tim Wood Patrick Péra
1969 Colorado Springs Tim Wood Ondrej Nepela Patrick Péra
1970 Ljubljana Tim Wood Ondrej Nepela Günter Zöller
1971 Lyon Ondrej Nepela Patrick Péra Sergei Chetverukhin
1972 Calgary Ondrej Nepela Sergei Chetverukhin Vladimir Kovalev
1973 Bratislava Ondrej Nepela Sergei Chetverukhin Jan Hoffmann
1974 Munich Jan Hoffmann Sergei Volkov Toller Cranston
1975 Colorado Springs Sergei Volkov Vladimir Kovalev John Curry
1976 Gothenburg John Curry Vladimir Kovalev Jan Hoffmann
1977 Tokyo Vladimir Kovalev Jan Hoffmann Minoru Sano
1978 Ottawa Charles Tickner Jan Hoffmann Robin Cousins
1979 Vienna Vladimir Kovalev Robin Cousins Jan Hoffmann
1980 Dortmund Jan Hoffmann Robin Cousins Charles Tickner
1981 Hartford Scott Hamilton David Santee Igor Bobrin
1982 Copenhagen Scott Hamilton Norbert Schramm Brian Pockar
1983 Helsinki Scott Hamilton Norbert Schramm Brian Orser
1984 Ottawa Scott Hamilton Brian Orser Alexander Fadeev
1985 Tokyo Alexander Fadeev Brian Orser Brian Boitano
1986 Geneva Brian Boitano Brian Orser Alexander Fadeev
1987 Cincinnati Brian Orser Brian Boitano Alexander Fadeev
1988 Budapest Brian Boitano Brian Orser Viktor Petrenko
1989 Paris Kurt Browning Christopher Bowman Grzegorz Filipowski
1990 Halifax Kurt Browning Viktor Petrenko Christopher Bowman
1991 Munich Kurt Browning Viktor Petrenko Todd Eldredge
1992 Oakland Viktor Petrenko Kurt Browning Elvis Stojko
1993 Prague Kurt Browning Elvis Stojko Alexei Urmanov
1994 Chiba Elvis Stojko Philippe Candeloro Viacheslav Zagorodniuk
1995 Birmingham Elvis Stojko Todd Eldredge Philippe Candeloro
1996 Edmonton Todd Eldredge Ilia Kulik Rudy Galindo
1997 Lausanne Elvis Stojko Todd Eldredge Alexei Yagudin
1998 Minneapolis Alexei Yagudin Todd Eldredge Evgeni Plushenko
1999 Helsinki Alexei Yagudin Evgeni Plushenko Michael Weiss
2000 Nice Alexei Yagudin Elvis Stojko Michael Weiss
2001 Vancouver Evgeni Plushenko Alexei Yagudin Todd Eldredge
2002 Nagano Alexei Yagudin Timothy Goebel Takeshi Honda
2003 Washington, D.C. Evgeni Plushenko Timothy Goebel Takeshi Honda
2004 Dortmund Evgeni Plushenko Brian Joubert Stefan Lindemann
2005 Moscow Stéphane Lambiel Jeffrey Buttle Evan Lysacek
2006 Calgary Stéphane Lambiel Brian Joubert Evan Lysacek
2007 Tokyo Brian Joubert Daisuke Takahashi Stéphane Lambiel
2008 Gothenburg Jeffrey Buttle Brian Joubert Johnny Weir
2009 Los Angeles Evan Lysacek Patrick Chan Brian Joubert
2010 Turin Daisuke Takahashi Patrick Chan Brian Joubert
2011 Moscow Patrick Chan Takahiko Kozuka Artur Gachinski
2012 Nice Patrick Chan Daisuke Takahashi Yuzuru Hanyu
2013 London Patrick Chan Denis Ten Javier Fernández
2014 Saitama Yuzuru Hanyu Tatsuki Machida Javier Fernández
2015 Shanghai Javier Fernández Yuzuru Hanyu Denis Ten
2016 Boston
2017 Helsinki
2018 Milan or Turin

Ladies

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze
1906 Davos Madge Syers Jenny Herz Lily Kronberger
1907 Vienna Madge Syers Jenny Herz Lily Kronberger
1908 Troppau Lily Kronberger Elsa Rendschmidt no other competitors
1909 Budapest Lily Kronberger no other competitors
1910 Berlin Lily Kronberger Elsa Rendschmidt no other competitors
1911 Vienna Lily Kronberger Opika von Méray Horváth Ludowika Jakobsson-Eilers
1912 Davos Opika von Méray Horváth Dorothy Greenhough-Smith Phyllis Johnson
1913 Stockholm Opika von Méray Horváth Phyllis Johnson Svea Norén
1914 St. Moritz Opika von Méray Horváth Angela Hanka Phyllis Johnson
1915–
1921
Not held because of World War I
1922 Stockholm Herma Szabo Svea Norén Margot Moe
1923 Vienna Herma Szabo Gisela Reichmann Svea Norén
1924 Oslo Herma Szabo Ellen Brockhöft Beatrix Loughran
1925 Davos Herma Szabo Ellen Brockhöft Elisabeth Böckel
1926 Stockholm Herma Szabo Sonja Henie Kathleen Shaw
1927 Oslo Sonja Henie Herma Szabo Karen Simensen
1928 London Sonja Henie Maribel Vinson Fritzi Burger
1929 Budapest Sonja Henie Fritzi Burger Melitta Brunner
1930 New York City Sonja Henie Cecil Smith Maribel Vinson
1931 Berlin Sonja Henie Hilde Holovsky Fritzi Burger
1932 Montreal Sonja Henie Fritzi Burger Constance Wilson-Samuel
1933 Stockholm Sonja Henie Vivi-Anne Hultén Hilde Holovsky
1934 Oslo Sonja Henie Megan Taylor Liselotte Landbeck
1935 Vienna Sonja Henie Cecilia Colledge Vivi-Anne Hultén
1936 Paris Sonja Henie Megan Taylor Vivi-Anne Hultén
1937 London Cecilia Colledge Megan Taylor Vivi-Anne Hultén
1938 Stockholm Megan Taylor Cecilia Colledge Hedy Stenuf
1939 Prague Megan Taylor Hedy Stenuf Daphne Walker
1940–
1946
Not held due to World War II
1947 Stockholm Barbara Ann Scott Daphne Walker Gretchen Merrill
1948 Davos Barbara Ann Scott Eva Pawlik Jiřína Nekolová
1949 Paris Alena Vrzáňová Yvonne Sherman Jeannette Altwegg
1950 London Alena Vrzáňová Jeannette Altwegg Yvonne Sherman
1951 Milan Jeannette Altwegg Jacqueline du Bief Sonya Klopfer
1952 Paris Jacqueline du Bief Sonya Klopfer Virginia Baxter
1953 Davos Tenley Albright Gundi Busch Valda Osborn
1954 Oslo Gundi Busch Tenley Albright Erica Batchelor
1955 Vienna Tenley Albright Carol Heiss Hanna Eigel
1956 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Carol Heiss Tenley Albright Ingrid Wendl
1957 Colorado Springs Carol Heiss Hanna Eigel Ingrid Wendl
1958 Paris Carol Heiss Ingrid Wendl Hanna Walter
1959 Colorado Springs Carol Heiss Hanna Walter Sjoukje Dijkstra
1960 Vancouver Carol Heiss Sjoukje Dijkstra Barbara Ann Roles
1961 Event cancelled after the Sabena Flight 548 crash
1962 Prague Sjoukje Dijkstra Wendy Griner Regine Heitzer
1963 Cortina d'Ampezzo Sjoukje Dijkstra Regine Heitzer Nicole Hassler
1964 Dortmund Sjoukje Dijkstra Regine Heitzer Petra Burka
1965 Colorado Springs Petra Burka Regine Heitzer Peggy Fleming
1966 Davos Peggy Fleming Gabriele Seyfert Petra Burka
1967 Vienna Peggy Fleming Gabriele Seyfert Hana Mašková
1968 Geneva Peggy Fleming Gabriele Seyfert Hana Mašková
1969 Colorado Springs Gabriele Seyfert Trixi Schuba Zsuzsa Almássy
1970 Ljubljana Gabriele Seyfert Trixi Schuba Julie Lynn Holmes
1971 Lyon Trixi Schuba Julie Lynn Holmes Karen Magnussen
1972 Calgary Trixi Schuba Karen Magnussen Janet Lynn
1973 Bratislava Karen Magnussen Janet Lynn Christine Errath
1974 Munich Christine Errath Dorothy Hamill Dianne de Leeuw
1975 Colorado Springs Dianne de Leeuw Dorothy Hamill Christine Errath
1976 Gothenburg Dorothy Hamill Christine Errath Dianne de Leeuw
1977 Tokyo Linda Fratianne Anett Pötzsch Dagmar Lurz
1978 Ottawa Anett Pötzsch Linda Fratianne Susanna Driano
1979 Vienna Linda Fratianne Anett Pötzsch Emi Watanabe
1980 Dortmund Anett Pötzsch Dagmar Lurz Linda Fratianne
1981 Hartford Denise Biellmann Elaine Zayak Claudia Kristofics-Binder
1982 Copenhagen Elaine Zayak Katarina Witt Claudia Kristofics-Binder
1983 Helsinki Rosalynn Sumners Claudia Leistner Elena Vodorezova
1984 Ottawa Katarina Witt Anna Kondrashova Elaine Zayak
1985 Tokyo Katarina Witt Kira Ivanova Tiffany Chin
1986 Geneva Debi Thomas Katarina Witt Tiffany Chin
1987 Cincinnati Katarina Witt Debi Thomas Caryn Kadavy
1988 Budapest Katarina Witt Elizabeth Manley Debi Thomas
1989 Paris Midori Ito Claudia Leistner Jill Trenary
1990 Halifax Jill Trenary Midori Ito Holly Cook
1991 Munich Kristi Yamaguchi Tonya Harding Nancy Kerrigan
1992 Oakland Kristi Yamaguchi Nancy Kerrigan Chen Lu
1993 Prague Oksana Baiul Surya Bonaly Chen Lu
1994 Chiba Yuka Sato Surya Bonaly Tanja Szewczenko
1995 Birmingham Chen Lu Surya Bonaly Nicole Bobek
1996 Edmonton Michelle Kwan Chen Lu Irina Slutskaya
1997 Lausanne Tara Lipinski Michelle Kwan Vanessa Gusmeroli
1998 Minneapolis Michelle Kwan Irina Slutskaya Maria Butyrskaya
1999 Helsinki Maria Butyrskaya Michelle Kwan Julia Soldatova
2000 Nice Michelle Kwan Irina Slutskaya Maria Butyrskaya
2001 Vancouver Michelle Kwan Irina Slutskaya Sarah Hughes
2002 Nagano Irina Slutskaya Michelle Kwan Fumie Suguri
2003 Washington, D.C. Michelle Kwan Elena Sokolova Fumie Suguri
2004 Dortmund Shizuka Arakawa Sasha Cohen Michelle Kwan
2005 Moscow Irina Slutskaya Sasha Cohen Carolina Kostner
2006 Calgary Kimmie Meissner Fumie Suguri Sasha Cohen
2007 Tokyo Miki Ando Mao Asada Kim Yuna
2008 Gothenburg Mao Asada Carolina Kostner Kim Yuna
2009 Los Angeles Kim Yuna Joannie Rochette Miki Ando
2010 Turin Mao Asada Kim Yuna Laura Lepistö
2011 Moscow Miki Ando Kim Yuna Carolina Kostner
2012 Nice Carolina Kostner Alena Leonova Akiko Suzuki
2013 London Kim Yuna Carolina Kostner Mao Asada
2014 Saitama Mao Asada Yulia Lipnitskaya Carolina Kostner
2015 Shanghai Elizaveta Tuktamysheva Satoko Miyahara Elena Radionova
2016 Boston
2017 Helsinki
2018 Milan or Turin

Pairs

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze
1908 St. Petersburg Anna Hübler / Heinrich Burger Phyllis Johnson / James H. Johnson Lidia Popova / A. L. Fischer
1909 Stockholm Phyllis Johnson / James H. Johnson Nils Rosenius Gertrud Ström / Richard Johansson
1910 Berlin Anna Hübler / Heinrich Burger Ludowika Eilers / Walter Jakobsson Phyllis Johnson / James H. Johnson
1911 Vienna Ludowika Eilers / Walter Jakobsson no other competitors
1912 Manchester Phyllis Johnson / James H. Johnson Ludowika Jakobsson-Eilers / Walter Jakobsson Alexia Schøien / Yngvar Bryn
1913 Stockholm Helene Engelmann / Karl Mejstrik Ludowika Jakobsson-Eilers / Walter Jakobsson Christa von Szabó / Leo Horwitz
1914 St. Moritz Ludowika Jakobsson-Eilers / Walter Jakobsson Helene Engelmann / Karl Mejstrik Christa von Szabó / Leo Horwitz
1915–
1921
Not held due to World War I
1922 Davos Helene Engelmann / Alfred Berger Ludowika Jakobsson-Eilers / Walter Jakobsson Margaret Metzner / Paul Metzner
1923 Oslo Ludowika Jakobsson-Eilers / Walter Jakobsson Alexia Bryn-Schøien / Yngvar Bryn Elna Henrikson / Kaj af Ekström
1924 Manchester Helene Engelmann / Alfred Berger Ethel Muckelt / John F. Page Elna Henrikson / Kaj af Ekström
1925 Vienna Herma Szabo / Ludwig Wrede Andreé Joly-Brunet / Pierre Brunet Lilly Scholz / Otto Kaiser
1926 Berlin Andreé Joly-Brunet / Pierre Brunet Lilly Scholz / Otto Kaiser Herma Szabo / Ludwig Wrede
1927 Vienna Herma Szabo / Ludwig Wrede Lilly Scholz / Otto Kaiser Else Hoppe / Oscar Hoppe
1928 London Andreé Joly-Brunet / Pierre Brunet Lilly Scholz / Otto Kaiser Melitta Brunner / Ludwig Wrede
1929 Budapest Lilly Scholz / Otto Kaiser Melitta Brunner / Ludwig Wrede Sándor Szalay
1930 New York City Andreé Joly-Brunet / Pierre Brunet Melitta Brunner / Ludwig Wrede Beatrix Loughran / Sherwin Badger
1931 Berlin Emília Rotter / László Szollás Sándor Szalay Idi Papez / Karl Zwack
1932 Montreal Andreé Joly-Brunet / Pierre Brunet Emília Rotter / László Szollás Beatrix Loughran / Sherwin Badger
1933 Stockholm Emília Rotter / László Szollás Idi Papez / Karl Zwack Randi Bakke-Gjertsen / Christen Christensen
1934 Helsinki Emília Rotter / László Szollás Idi Papez / Karl Zwack Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier
1935 Budapest Emília Rotter / László Szollás Ilse Pausin / Erich Pausin Lucy Gallo / Rezso Dillinger
1936 Paris Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Ilse Pausin / Erich Pausin Violet Cliff / Leslie Cliff
1937 London Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Ilse Pausin / Erich Pausin Violet Cliff / Leslie Cliff
1938 Berlin, Germany Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Ilse Pausin / Erich Pausin Ilse Koch / Gunther Noack
1939 Budapest Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Ilse Pausin / Erich Pausin Ilse Koch / Gunther Noack
1940–
1946
Not held due to World War II
1947 Stockholm Micheline Lannoy / Pierre Baugniet Karol Kennedy / Peter Kennedy Suzanne Diskeuve / Edmond Verbustel
1948 Davos Micheline Lannoy / Pierre Baugniet Andrea Kékesy / Ede Király Suzanne Morrow / Wallace Diestelmeyer
1949 Paris Andrea Kékesy / Ede Király Karol Kennedy / Peter Kennedy Ann Davies / Carleton Hoffner
1950 London Karol Kennedy / Peter Kennedy Jennifer Nicks / John Nicks Marianna Nagy / László Nagy
1951 Milan Ria Baran / Paul Falk Karol Kennedy / Peter Kennedy Jennifer Nicks / John Nicks
1952 Paris Ria Baran / Paul Falk Karol Kennedy / Peter Kennedy Jennifer Nicks / John Nicks
1953 Davos Jennifer Nicks / John Nicks Frances Dafoe / Norris Bowden Marianna Nagy / László Nagy
1954 Oslo Frances Dafoe / Norris Bowden Silvia Grandjean / Michel Grandjean Sissy Schwarz / Kurt Oppelt
1955 Vienna Frances Dafoe / Norris Bowden Sissy Schwarz / Kurt Oppelt Marianna Nagy / László Nagy
1956 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Sissy Schwarz / Kurt Oppelt Frances Dafoe / Norris Bowden Marika Kilius / Franz Ningel
1957 Colorado Springs Barbara Wagner / Robert Paul Marika Kilius / Franz Ningel Maria Jelinek / Otto Jelinek
1958 Paris Barbara Wagner / Robert Paul Věra Suchánková / Zdeněk Doležal Maria Jelinek / Otto Jelinek
1959 Colorado Springs Barbara Wagner / Robert Paul Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Nancy Ludington / Ronald Ludington
1960 Vancouver Barbara Wagner / Robert Paul Maria Jelinek / Otto Jelinek Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler
1961 Event cancelled after the Sabena Flight 548 crash
1962 Prague Maria Jelinek / Otto Jelinek Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Margret Göbl / Franz Ningel
1963 Cortina d'Ampezzo Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Tatiana Zhuk / Alexander Gavrilov
1964 Dortmund Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Debbi Wilkes / Guy Revell
1965 Colorado Springs Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Vivian Joseph / Ronald Joseph Tatiana Zhuk / Alexander Gorelik
1966 Davos Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Tatiana Zhuk / Alexander Gorelik Cynthia Kauffman / Ronald Kauffman
1967 Vienna Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Margot Glockshuber / Wolfgang Danne Cynthia Kauffman / Ronald Kauffman
1968 Geneva Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Tatiana Zhuk / Alexander Gorelik Cynthia Kauffman / Ronald Kauffman
1969 Colorado Springs Irina Rodnina / Alexei Ulanov Tamara Moskvina / Alexei Mishin Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov
1970 Ljubljana Irina Rodnina / Alexei Ulanov Liudmila Smirnova / Andrei Suraikin Heidemarie Steiner / Heinz-Ulrich Walther
1971 Lyon Irina Rodnina / Alexei Ulanov Liudmila Smirnova / Andrei Suraikin JoJo Starbuck / Kenneth Shelley
1972 Calgary Irina Rodnina / Alexei Ulanov Liudmila Smirnova / Andrei Suraikin JoJo Starbuck / Kenneth Shelley
1973 Bratislava Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Liudmila Smirnova / Alexei Ulanov Manuela Groß / Uwe Kagelmann
1974 Munich Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Liudmila Smirnova / Alexei Ulanov Romy Kermer / Rolf Österreich
1975 Colorado Springs Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Romy Kermer / Rolf Österreich Manuela Groß / Uwe Kagelmann
1976 Gothenburg Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Romy Kermer / Rolf Österreich Irina Vorobieva / Alexander Vlasov
1977 Tokyo Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Irina Vorobieva / Alexander Vlasov Tai Babilonia / Randy Gardner
1978 Ottawa Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Manuela Mager / Uwe Bewersdorf Tai Babilonia / Randy Gardner
1979 Vienna Tai Babilonia / Randy Gardner Marina Cherkasova / Sergei Shakhrai Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach
1980 Dortmund Marina Cherkasova / Sergei Shakhrai Manuela Mager / Uwe Bewersdorf Marina Pestova / Stanislav Leonovich
1981 Hartford Irina Vorobieva / Igor Lisovski Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach Christina Riegel / Andreas Nischwitz
1982 Copenhagen Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach Marina Pestova / Stanislav Leonovich Caitlin Carruthers / Peter Carruthers
1983 Helsinki Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach Barbara Underhill / Paul Martini
1984 Ottawa Barbara Underhill / Paul Martini Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach
1985 Tokyo Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Larisa Selezneva / Oleg Makarov Katherina Matousek / Lloyd Eisler
1986 Geneva Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Cynthia Coull / Mark Rowsom
1987 Cincinnati Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Jill Watson / Peter Oppegard
1988 Budapest Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Larisa Selezneva / Oleg Makarov
1989 Paris Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Cindy Landry / Lyndon Johnston Elena Bechke / Denis Petrov
1990 Halifax Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Isabelle Brasseur / Lloyd Eisler Natalia Mishkutenok / Artur Dmitriev
1991 Munich Natalia Mishkutenok / Artur Dmitriev Isabelle Brasseur / Lloyd Eisler Natasha Kuchiki / Todd Sand
1992 Oakland Natalia Mishkutenok / Artur Dmitriev Radka Kovaříková / René Novotný Isabelle Brasseur / Lloyd Eisler
1993 Prague Isabelle Brasseur / Lloyd Eisler Mandy Wötzel / Ingo Steuer Evgenia Shishkova / Vadim Naumov
1994 Chiba Evgenia Shishkova / Vadim Naumov Isabelle Brasseur / Lloyd Eisler Marina Eltsova / Andrei Bushkov
1995 Birmingham Radka Kovaříková / René Novotný Evgenia Shishkova / Vadim Naumov Jenni Meno / Todd Sand
1996 Edmonton Marina Eltsova / Andrei Bushkov Mandy Wötzel / Ingo Steuer Jenni Meno / Todd Sand
1997 Lausanne Mandy Wötzel / Ingo Steuer Marina Eltsova / Andrei Bushkov Oksana Kazakova / Artur Dmitriev
1998 Minneapolis Elena Berezhnaya / Anton Sikharulidze Jenni Meno / Todd Sand Peggy Schwarz / Mirko Müller
1999 Helsinki Elena Berezhnaya / Anton Sikharulidze Shen Xue / Zhao Hongbo Dorota Zagórska / Mariusz Siudek
2000 Nice Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov Shen Xue / Zhao Hongbo Sarah Abitbol / Stéphane Bernadis
2001 Vancouver Jamie Salé / David Pelletier Elena Berezhnaya / Anton Sikharulidze Shen Xue / Zhao Hongbo
2002 Nagano Shen Xue / Zhao Hongbo Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Kyoko Ina / John Zimmerman
2003 Washington D.C Shen Xue / Zhao Hongbo Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov
2004 Dortmund Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Shen Xue / Zhao Hongbo Pang Qing / Tong Jian
2005 Moscow Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov Zhang Dan / Zhang Hao
2006 Calgary Pang Qing / Tong Jian Zhang Dan / Zhang Hao Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov
2007 Tokyo Shen Xue / Zhao Hongbo Pang Qing / Tong Jian Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy
2008 Gothenburg Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Zhang Dan / Zhang Hao Jessica Dubé / Bryce Davison
2009 Los Angeles Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Zhang Dan / Zhang Hao Yuko Kavaguti / Alexander Smirnov
2010 Turin Pang Qing / Tong Jian Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Yuko Kavaguti / Alexander Smirnov
2011 Moscow Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Tatiana Volosozhar / Maxim Trankov Pang Qing / Tong Jian
2012 Nice Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Tatiana Volosozhar / Maxim Trankov Narumi Takahashi / Mervin Tran
2013 London Tatiana Volosozhar / Maxim Trankov Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Meagan Duhamel / Eric Radford
2014 Saitama Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Ksenia Stolbova / Fedor Klimov Meagan Duhamel / Eric Radford
2015 Shanghai Meagan Duhamel / Eric Radford Sui Wenjing / Han Cong Pang Qing / Tong Jian
2016 Boston
2017 Helsinki
2018 Milan or Turin

Ice dancing

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze
1952 Paris Jean Westwood / Lawrence Demmy Joan Dewhirst / John Slater Carol Ann Peters / Daniel Ryan
1953 Davos Jean Westwood / Lawrence Demmy Joan Dewhirst / John Slater Carol Ann Peters / Daniel Ryan
1954 Oslo Jean Westwood / Lawrence Demmy Nesta Davies / Paul Thomas Carmel Bodel / Edward Bodel
1955 Vienna Jean Westwood / Lawrence Demmy Pamela Weight / Paul Thomas Barbara Radford / Raymond Lockwood
1956 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Pamela Weight / Paul Thomas June Markham / Courtney Jones Barbara Thompson / Gerard Rigby
1957 Colorado Springs June Markham / Courtney Jones Geraldine Fenton / William McLachlan Sharon McKenzie / Bert Wright
1958 Paris June Markham / Courtney Jones Geraldine Fenton / William McLachlan Andree Anderson / Donald Jacoby
1959 Colorado Springs Doreen Denny / Courtney Jones Andree Anderson / Donald Jacoby Geraldine Fenton / William McLachlan
1960 Vancouver Doreen Denny / Courtney Jones Virginia Thompson / William McLachlan Christiane Guhel / Jean Paul Guhel
1961 Event cancelled after the Sabena Flight 548 crash
1962 Prague Eva Romanová / Pavel Roman Christiane Guhel / Jean Paul Guhel Virginia Thompson / William McLachlan
1963 Cortina d'Ampezzo Eva Romanová / Pavel Roman Linda Shearman / Michael Phillips Paulette Doan / Kenneth Ormsby
1964 Dortmund Eva Romanová / Pavel Roman Paulette Doan / Kenneth Ormsby Janet Sawbridge / David Hickinbottom
1965 Colorado Springs Eva Romanová / Pavel Roman Janet Sawbridge / David Hickinbottom Lorna Dyer / John Carrell
1966 Davos Diane Towler / Bernard Ford Kristin Fortune / Dennis Sveum Lorna Dyer / John Carrell
1967 Vienna Diane Towler / Bernard Ford Lorna Dyer / John Carrell Yvonne Suddick / Malcolm Cannon
1968 Geneva Diane Towler / Bernard Ford Yvonne Suddick / Malcolm Cannon Janet Sawbridge / Jon Lane
1969 Colorado Springs Diane Towler / Bernard Ford Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Judy Schwomeyer / James Sladky
1970 Ljubljana Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Judy Schwomeyer / James Sladky Angelika Buck / Erich Buck
1971 Lyon Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Angelika Buck / Erich Buck Judy Schwomeyer / James Sladky
1972 Calgary Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Angelika Buck / Erich Buck Judy Schwomeyer / James Sladky
1973 Bratislava Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Angelika Buck / Erich Buck Hilary Green / Glyn Watts
1974 Munich Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Hilary Green / Glyn Watts Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov
1975 Colorado Springs Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Colleen O'Connor / James Millns Hilary Green / Glyn Watts
1976 Gothenburg Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Colleen O'Connor / James Millns
1977 Tokyo Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Janet Thompson / Warren Maxwell Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov
1978 Ottawa Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Krisztina Regőczy / András Sallay
1979 Vienna Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov Krisztina Regőczy / András Sallay Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov
1980 Dortmund Krisztina Regőczy / András Sallay Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov
1981 Hartford Jayne Torvill / Christopher Dean Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin
1982 Copenhagen Jayne Torvill / Christopher Dean Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov
1983 Helsinki Jayne Torvill / Christopher Dean Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Judy Blumberg / Michael Seibert
1984 Ottawa Jayne Torvill / Christopher Dean Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Judy Blumberg / Michael Seibert
1985 Tokyo Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Judy Blumberg / Michael Seibert
1986 Geneva Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Tracy Wilson / Robert McCall
1987 Cincinnati Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Tracy Wilson / Robert McCall
1988 Budapest Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Tracy Wilson / Robert McCall
1989 Paris Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin Isabelle Duchesnay / Paul Duchesnay
1990 Halifax Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Isabelle Duchesnay / Paul Duchesnay Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin
1991 Munich Isabelle Duchesnay / Paul Duchesnay Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin
1992 Oakland Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin Pasha Grishuk / Evgeni Platov
1993 Prague Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin Pasha Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Anjelika Krylova / Vladimir Fedorov
1994 Chiba Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Sophie Moniotte / Pascal Lavanchy Susanna Rahkamo / Petri Kokko
1995 Birmingham Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Susanna Rahkamo / Petri Kokko Sophie Moniotte / Pascal Lavanchy
1996 Edmonton Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov Shae-Lynn Bourne / Victor Kraatz
1997 Lausanne Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov Shae-Lynn Bourne / Victor Kraatz
1998 Minneapolis Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat Shae-Lynn Bourne / Victor Kraatz
1999 Helsinki Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat Shae-Lynn Bourne / Victor Kraatz
2000 Nice Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat Barbara Fusar-Poli / Maurizio Margaglio Margarita Drobiazko / Povilas Vanagas
2001 Vancouver Barbara Fusar-Poli / Maurizio Margaglio Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat Irina Lobacheva / Ilia Averbukh
2002 Nagano Irina Lobacheva / Ilia Averbukh Shae-Lynn Bourne / Victor Kraatz Galit Chait / Sergei Sakhnovski
2003 Washington D.C. Shae-Lynn Bourne / Victor Kraatz Irina Lobacheva / Ilia Averbukh Albena Denkova / Maxim Staviski
2004 Dortmund Tatiana Navka / Roman Kostomarov Albena Denkova / Maxim Staviski Kati Winkler / René Lohse
2005 Moscow Tatiana Navka / Roman Kostomarov Tanith Belbin / Benjamin Agosto Elena Grushina / Ruslan Goncharov
2006 Calgary Albena Denkova / Maxim Staviski Marie-France Dubreuil / Patrice Lauzon Tanith Belbin / Benjamin Agosto
2007 Tokyo Albena Denkova / Maxim Staviski Marie-France Dubreuil / Patrice Lauzon Tanith Belbin / Benjamin Agosto
2008 Gothenburg Isabelle Delobel / Olivier Schoenfelder Tessa Virtue / Scott Moir Jana Khokhlova / Sergei Novitski
2009 Los Angeles Oksana Domnina / Maxim Shabalin Tanith Belbin / Benjamin Agosto Tessa Virtue / Scott Moir
2010 Turin Tessa Virtue / Scott Moir Meryl Davis / Charlie White Federica Faiella / Massimo Scali
2011 Moscow Meryl Davis / Charlie White Tessa Virtue / Scott Moir Maia Shibutani / Alex Shibutani
2012 Nice Tessa Virtue / Scott Moir Meryl Davis / Charlie White Nathalie Péchalat / Fabian Bourzat
2013 London Meryl Davis / Charlie White Tessa Virtue / Scott Moir Ekaterina Bobrova / Dmitri Soloviev
2014 Saitama Anna Cappellini / Luca Lanotte Kaitlyn Weaver / Andrew Poje Nathalie Péchalat / Fabian Bourzat
2015 Shanghai Gabriella Papadakis / Guillaume Cizeron Madison Chock / Evan Bates Kaitlyn Weaver / Andrew Poje
2016 Boston
2017 Helsinki
2018 Milan or Turin

Records

Event Largest number of titles Most consecutive titles Medal sweeps
Men Ulrich Salchow
10 (1901–1905, 1907–1911)
Karl Schafer
7 (1930–1936)
1925 :
1927–1928 :
1952 :
1955–1956 :
Ladies Sonja Henie
10 (1927–1936)
Sonja Henie
10 (1927–1936)
1991:
Pairs Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev
6 (1973–1978)
** Irina Rodnina won 10 titles from 1969–1978, the first 4 partnered with Alexei Ulanov
Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev
6 (1973–1978)
** Irina Rodnina won 10 titles from 1969–1978, the first 4 partnered with Alexei Ulanov
1939 : (Germany)
1969 :
1988 :
Ice Dance Lyudmila Pakhomova / Alexandr Gorshkov
6 (1970–1974, 1976)
Lyudmila Pakhomova / Alexandr Gorshkov
5 (1970–1974)
1955–1956:
1968 :
1992 : (Commonwealth of Independent States)
1993 :

Cumulative medal count

References

  1. ^ Hines, p.75
  2. ^ a b Hines, p.88
  3. ^ a b c d
  4. ^ Hines, p.114
  5. ^ Google.com
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ ISU Communication 1685: Entries ISU Championships 2012 (25 Jul 2011)

Sources

  • ISU Results: Men PDF (9.95 KB)
  • ISU Results: Ladies PDF (14.2 KB)
  • ISU Results: Pairs PDF (19.4 KB)
  • ISU Results: Dance PDF (15.5 KB)
  • ISU Constitution & General Regulations 2006 PDF (793 KB)
  • ISU Special Regulations and Technical Rules: Single and Pair Skating and Ice Dancing 2006 PDF (1.03 MB)

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.