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Wupatki National Monument

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Title: Wupatki National Monument  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sunset Crater, Sinagua, Colorado Plateau, Coconino National Forest, Blowhole (geology)
Collection: 11Th Century in North America, 11Th-Century Architecture, 1924 Establishments in Arizona, Archaeological Sites on the National Register of Historic Places in Arizona, Blowholes, Buildings and Structures Completed in the 11Th Century, Former Populated Places in Arizona, Former Populated Places in Coconino County, Arizona, Historic American Buildings Survey in Arizona, Museums in Coconino County, Arizona, National Park Service National Monuments in Arizona, National Register of Historic Places in Coconino County, Arizona, Native American History of Arizona, Native American Museums in Arizona, Parks in Coconino County, Arizona, Protected Areas Established in 1924, Puebloan Buildings and Structures, Ruins in the United States
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Wupatki National Monument

Wupatki National Monument
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Wukoki ruins in 2008
Map showing the location of Wupatki National Monument
Location Coconino County, Arizona, USA
Nearest city Flagstaff, Arizona
Area 35,422 acres (14,335 ha)[1]
Created December 9, 1924 (1924-December-09)
Visitors 216,165 (in 2011)[2]
Governing body National Park Service

The Wupatki National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located in north-central Arizona, near Flagstaff. Rich in Native American ruins, the monument is administered by the National Park Service in close conjunction with the nearby Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. Wupatki was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. The listing included three contributing buildings and 29 contributing structures on 35,253.2 acres (14,266.5 ha).[3][4]


  • History 1
  • In popular culture 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4


The many settlement sites scattered throughout the monument were built by the Ancient Pueblo People, more specifically the Cohonina, Kayenta Anasazi, and Sinagua. Wupatki was first inhabited around 500 AD. Wupatki, which means "Tall House" in the Hopi language, is a multistory Sinagua pueblo dwelling comprising over 100 rooms and a community room and ball court, making it the largest building for nearly 50 miles. Nearby secondary structures have also been uncovered, including two kiva-like structures.[5] A major population influx began soon after the eruption of Sunset Crater in the 11th century (between 1040 and 1100), which blanketed the area with volcanic ash; this improved agricultural productivity and the soil's ability to retain water. By 1182, approximately 85 to 100 people lived at Wupatki Pueblo but by 1225, the site was permanently abandoned. Based on a careful survey of archaeological sites conducted in the 1980s, an estimated 2000 immigrants moved into the area during the century following the eruption. Agriculture was based mainly on maize and squash raised from the arid land without irrigation. In the Wupatki site, the residents harvested rainwater due to the rarity of springs.

Wukoki ruins complex

The dwelling's walls were constructed from thin, flat blocks of the local Moenkopi sandstone giving the pueblos their distinct red color. Held together with mortar, many of the walls still stand. Each settlement was constructed as a single building, sometimes with scores of rooms. The largest settlement on monument territory is the Wupatki Ruin, built around a natural rock outcropping. With over 100 rooms, this ruin is believed to be the area's tallest and largest structure for its time period. The monument also contains ruins identified as a ball court, similar to those found in Mesoamerica and in the Hohokam ruins of southern Arizona; this is the northernmost example of this kind of structure. This site also contains a geological blowhole.[6] Other major sites are Wukoki and The Citadel.

Today Wupatki appears empty and abandoned, but it is remembered and cared for. Though it is no longer physically occupied, Hopi believe the people who lived and died here remain as spiritual guardians. Stories of Wupatki are passed on among Hopi, Navajo, Zuni, and perhaps other tribes. Members of the Hopi Bear, Katsina, Lizard, Rattlesnake, Sand, Snow, and Water Clans return periodically to enrich their personal understanding of their clan history.[7]

Amidst what would seem a generally inhospitable area due to the lack of food and water sources, several artifacts have been located at the site from distant locations, implying that Wupatki was involved in trade. Items from as far as the Pacific and the Gulf Coast have been located at the site, such as many different varieties of pottery, during numerous excavations stretching back to the site' exploration in the mid-1800s.[8]

In popular culture

In James Rollins' seventh Sigma Force novel The Devil Colony, Painter Crowe takes a contingent to explore Sunset Crater and the Wupatki National Monument. During the course of their preparations and explorations, the group discusses the history of the people and geology at the two sites.


  1. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  2. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  3. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places.  
  4. ^ Catherine M. Cameron and Cherie L. Schieck (July 28, 1992). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Wupatki National Monument" (PDF). 
  5. ^ Snow, Dean. Archaeology of Native North America. Prentice Hall. p. 134.  
  6. ^ "The Breathing Earth: Wupatki Blowholes" (PDF). National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  7. ^ "National Park Service". Wupatki National Monument. National Park Service. 2010-11-06. 
  8. ^ "Welcome to Anthropology Labs". Retrieved April 8, 2012. 

External links

  • Geographic data related to Wupatki National Monument at OpenStreetMap
  • websiteWupatki National MonumentNPS: official
  • Travel ItineraryDiscover Our Shared HeritageAmerican Southwest, National Park Service
  • Anthropology Laboratories of Northern Arizona University
  • Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. AZ-152-A, "Wupatki, Wupatki Ruin, U.S. Highway 89, Loop Road, Flagstaff vicinity, Coconino County, AZ"
  • HABS No. AZ-152-B, "Wupatki, Wukoki Ruin, U.S. Highway 89, Loop Road, Flagstaff vicinity, Coconino County, AZ"
  • HABS No. AZ-152-C, "Wupatki, Citadel Ruin, U.S. Highway 89, Loop Road, Flagstaff vicinity, Coconino County, AZ"
  • HABS No. AZ-152-D, "Wupatki, Ball Court, U.S. Highway 89, Loop Road, Flagstaff vicinity, Coconino County, AZ"
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