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Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)


Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)



Capital Tongwan (418-427)
Shanggui (427-428)
Pingliang (428-430)
Political structure Empire
 •  407-425 Helian Bobo
 •  425-428 Helian Chang
 •  428-431 Helian Ding
 •  Established 407
 •  Helian Bobo's claim of imperial title 418
 •  Fall of Tongwan 11 July 427[1][2]
 •  Disestablished 431
 •  Helian Ding's death 13 May 432[3][4]

Tiefu (simplified Chinese: 铁弗; traditional Chinese: 鐵弗; pinyin: Tiěfú) was a pre-state Xiongnu tribe during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.[5] Its chieftain Liu Bobo established the state of Xia in 407 and changed his family name into Helian.

Although the Xia only lasted up to 431, its capital Tongwan (in Ordos) was certainly a heavily fortified and state-of-the-art city that would serve as a frontier garrison until the Song Dynasty. Its ruins were discovered during the Qing Dynasty and can still be seen in present-day Inner Mongolia.

The Wei Shu also records that Liu Kuren's tribe, the Dugu, were descended from the Xiongnu. Yao Weiyuan 姚薇元 suggested in the past that 'Dugu' was an alternate form of 'Tuge' 屠各, the Xiongnu aristocratic clan that had adopted the surname of Liu 刘, members of which also ruled the Former Zhao state. This writer further suggests that 'Tuge' is an alternate form of 'Tuhe' 徒河, which is the branch of the Xianbei from which the Murong 慕容 were descended. The Liu (Dugu) were also known as Tiefu 铁弗, a term which meant that they had Xiongnu fathers and Xianbei mothers. Thus it is reasonable to say that the Dugu were at least half Xianbei.

All rulers of the Xia declared themselves "emperors".


  • Chieftains of the Tiefu and rulers of the Xia 1
  • Rulers family tree 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes and references 4

Chieftains of the Tiefu and rulers of the Xia

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family name and given name
Chieftains of the Tiefu
Did not exist Did not exist 劉去卑 Liú Qùbēi 260-272 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉誥升爰 Liú Gàoshēngyuán 272-309 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉虎 Liú Hǔ 309-341 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉務恒 Liú Wùhéng 341-356 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉閼陋頭 Liú èlòutóu 356-358 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉悉勿祈 Liú Xīwùqí 358-359 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉衛辰 Liú Wèichén 359-391 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉勃勃 Liú Bóbó 391-407 Did not exist
Rulers of the Xia
Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) Wulie (武烈 Wǔliè) 赫連勃勃 Hèlián Bóbó 407-425 Longsheng (龍升 Lóngshēng) 407-413
Fengxiang (鳳翔 Fèngxiáng) 413-418
Changwu (昌武 Chāngwǔ) 418-419
Zhenxing (真興 Zhēnxīng) 419-425
Did not exist Did not exist 赫連昌 Hèlián Chāng 425-428 Chengguang (承光 Chéngguāng) 425-428
Did not exist Did not exist 赫連定 Hèlián Dìng 428-431 Shengguang (勝光 Shèngguāng) 428-431

Rulers family tree

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 120.
  3. ^
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 122.
  5. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 61.  
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