World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Zamucoan languages

Article Id: WHEBN0006524447
Reproduction Date:

Title: Zamucoan languages  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of language families, Classification schemes for Southeast Asian languages, Zamucoan languages, Indigenous peoples in Paraguay, Ayoreo people
Collection: Zamucoan Languages
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Zamucoan languages

Paraguay and Bolivia
Linguistic classification: Zamucoan
Glottolog: zamu1243[1]

Zamucoan (also Samúkoan) is a small language family of Paraguay (northeast Chaco) and Bolivia (Santa Cruz Department).

The family has hardly been studied by linguists (as of Adelaar & Muysken 2004), although several studies have recently appeared (see: Bertinetto 2009, 2010, 2013; Ciucci 2007/08, 2009, 2010a, 2010b, 2013a, 2013b). Recent studies show that the Zamucoan languages are characterized by a rare syntactic configuration which is called para-hypotaxis (Bertinetto & Ciucci 2012).


  • Extant languages 1
  • Genetic relations 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4
  • External links 5

Extant languages

Zamucoan consists of two living languages:

  • Ayoreo (AKA Zamuco, Ayoré, Moro, Ayoréo, Ayoweo, Samuko, Morotoco, Pyeta, Yovai)
  • Chamacoco (AKA Bahía Negra, Ebidoso, Tumarahá, Chamakoko, Ebitoso, Ishiro, Jeywo)

Genetic relations

From the historical record of the Zamucoan peoples, the living Zamucoan languages appear to have had several relatives, now extinct. It's not clear if these were necessarily distinct languages, or even that they were Zamucoan, but Mason (1950) listed them as follows:[2]

  • Northern
    • Zamuco (Ayoreo)
    • Morotoco (Coroino)
    • Guarañoca [possibly a dialect of Ayoreo]
    • Ugaraño
    • Tapii (Tapio)
    • Poturero (Ninaquiguilá)
  • Southern
    • Chamacoco
    • Imono
    • Tunacho (Tunaca)
    • Caipotorade


  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Zamucoan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Fabre 2007:3–5


  • Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). The languages of the Andes. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press.
  • Bertinetto, Pier Marco (2009). Ayoreo (Zamuco). A grammatical sketch. Quaderni del laboratorio di Linguistica 8 n.s. (Online version: ).
  • Bertinetto, Pier Marco (2010). How the Zamuco languages dealt with verb affixes. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica 9,1 n.s. (Online version: ).
  • Bertinetto, Pier Marco (2013). Ayoreo (Zamuco) as a radical tenseless language. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica 12 n.s. (Online version: )
  • Bertinetto, Pier Marco & Luca Ciucci 2012. Parataxis, Hypotaxis and Para-Hypotaxis in the Zamucoan Languages. In: Linguistic Discovery 10.1: 89-111.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Ciucci, Luca (2007/08). Indagini sulla morfologia verbale nella lingua ayoreo. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica della Scuola Normale Superiore 7 n.s. (Online version: )
  • Ciucci, Luca (2009). Elementi di morfologia verbale del chamacoco. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica della Scuola Normale Superiore 8 n.s. (Online version: )
  • Ciucci, Luca (2010a). La flessione possessiva dell’ayoreo. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica della Scuola Normale Superiore 9,2 n.s. (Online version: )
  • Ciucci, Luca (2010b). La flessione possessiva del chamacoco. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica della Scuola Normale Superiore 9,2 n.s. (Online version: )
  • Ciucci, Luca (2013a). Inflectional morphology in the Zamucoan languages. Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Ph.D. Thesis.
  • Ciucci, Luca (2013b). Chamacoco lexicographical supplement. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica della Scuola Normale Superiore 12 n.s. (Online version: )
  • Fabre, Alain. (por aparecer, 2005). Los pueblos del Gran Chaco y sus lenguas, cuarta parte: Los zamuco. Suplemento Antropológico, Asunción.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.

External links

  • Proel: Familia Zamucoana
  • Sorosoro: Zamucoan languages
  • Arte de la lengua zamuca, written by father Ignace Chomé (1696).
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.