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Chongqing Municipality
Clockwise from top: Great Hall of the People.
Location of Chongqing Municipality within China
Location of Chongqing Municipality within China
Country  People's Republic of China
Settled c. 316 BCE
 - County-level
 - Township-level

21 districts, 17 counties
1259 towns, townships, and subdistricts
 • Type Municipality
 • CPC Secretary Sun Zhengcai[1]
 • Mayor Huang Qifan[2]
 • Congress Chairman Zhang Xuan
 • Conference Chairman Xu Jingye
 • Municipality 82,403 km2 (31,816 sq mi)
 • Urban 5,472.8 km2 (2,113.1 sq mi)
Elevation 237 m (778 ft)
Population (2014)[4]
 • Municipality 29,914,000
 • Density 360/km2 (940/sq mi)
 • Urban 17,830,100
 • Metro (2010)[5] 17,000,000
Demonym(s) Chongqinger
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 4000 00 - 4099 00
Area code(s) 23
GDP 2014
 - Total CNY 1.427 trillion
US$ 232.22 billion (23rd)
 - Per capita CNY 48,233
US$ 7,852 (13th)
HDI (2010) 0.689[6] (17th) — medium
Licence plate prefixes A, B, C, F, G, H
ISO 3166-2 CN-50
City flower Camellia[7]
City tree Ficus lacor[8]
Website (Chinese)
"Chongqing" in Simplified Chinese
Simplified Chinese 重庆
Traditional Chinese 重慶
Hanyu Pinyin Chóngqìng ()
Sichuanese Pinyin Cong2qin4 ()
Postal Chungking
Literal meaning "Double celebration"

Chongqing (Chinese: 重庆, ; formerly Chungking[1]) is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities in China. Administratively, it is one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and the only such municipality in inland China.[9]

The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the sub-provincial city administration that was part of Sichuan Province.[10] As of 2010 census, the municipality had a population of 28,846,170.[11] According to this census, Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality,[12] although the urbanized area is estimated to have a population of only 6 or 7 million,[13] whereas the built-up area made up of 8 out of 9 urban districts (all but Beibei not yet built-up) was home to 6,777,229 inhabitants at the 2010 census. Chongqing is the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, and comprises 21 districts, 13 counties, and 4 autonomous counties.

The official abbreviation of the city, (Yú), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997.[14] This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds into the Yangtze River. Chongqing was also a municipality of the Republic of China (ROC) administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).

Chongqing has a significant history and culture and serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze basin. It is a major manufacturing centre and transportation hub; a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit described it as one of China's "13 emerging megacities".[15]


  • History 1
    • Provisional capital of the Republic of China 1.1
    • Municipality status 1.2
    • Organised crime and the gang trials 1.3
  • Geography 2
    • Physical geography and topography 2.1
    • Climate 2.2
    • Air quality 2.3
  • Administrative divisions 3
  • Central Chongqing 4
    • Districts 4.1
    • Landforms 4.2
    • Bridges 4.3
    • Aerial tramway 4.4
  • Demographics 5
  • Politics and military 6
  • Economy 7
    • Economic and technological development zones 7.1
  • Transport 8
    • River port 8.1
    • Railways 8.2
    • Highways 8.3
    • Airports 8.4
    • Public transport 8.5
  • Culture 9
    • Language 9.1
    • Tourism 9.2
    • Media 9.3
    • Cuisine 9.4
    • Sports and recreation 9.5
      • Association football 9.5.1
      • Basketball 9.5.2
      • Sport venues 9.5.3
    • Religion 9.6
  • Education 10
    • Colleges and universities 10.1
    • Notable high schools 10.2
    • International schools 10.3
  • International relations 11
    • Consulates 11.1
    • Sister cities 11.2
  • See also 12
  • Notes 13
  • References 14
  • Sources 15
  • External links 16


Tradition associates Chongqing with the [16] In 316 BC, however, the state of Ba was conquered by the State of Qin.

Jiangzhou was subsequently renamed during the [16] It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song Dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" (simplified Chinese: 双重喜庆; traditional Chinese: 雙重喜慶; pinyin: shuāngchóng xǐqìng, or chongqing in short). In his honour, Yu Prefecture was therefore renamed Chongqing subprefecture marking the occasion of his enthronement.

In 1362, (Yuan Dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebelling leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (大夏) at Chongqing for a short time.[18] In 1621 (Ming Dynasty), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang (大梁) was established by She Chongming (奢崇明) with Chongqing as its capital.[19] In 1644, after the fall of the Ming Dynasty to rebel army, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan, was captured by Zhang Xianzhong, who was said to have massacred a large number of people in Sichuan and depopulated the province. The Manchus later conquered the province, and during the Qing Dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of Qing emperor.[20]

In 1890, the British Consulate General was opened in Chongqing.[21] The following year, the city became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners.[22] The French, German, US and Japanese consulates were opened in Chongqing in 1896-1904.[23][24][25][26]

Provisional capital of the Republic of China

A street scene in Chongqing, c. 1944

During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital. After Britain, the USA, and other Allies entered the war in Asia in December 1941 one of the Allies' deputy commanders of operations in South East Asia (South East Asia Command SEAC), Joseph Stilwell, was based in the city. The city was also visited by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Commander of SEAC which was itself headquartered in Ceylon, modern day Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek as Supreme Commander in China worked closely with Stilwell.[27] The Japanese Air Force heavily bombed it. Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Due to the bravery, contributions and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II, Chongqing became known as the City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China to Chongqing during the war, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city.[28]

Municipality status

A night view of Chongqing Central Business District from across the Yangtze river
View of Chongqing from hills across the Yangtze river

On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National Central/Core cities, the other four are Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Tianjin.[29] On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, which is the third State-level new areas at the time of its establishment.[30]

Organised crime and the gang trials

In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for corruption. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-enforcement and justice systems. In 2009, city authorities under the auspices of municipal Communist Party secretary Bo Xilai undertook a large-scale crackdown, arresting 4,893 suspected gangsters, "outlaws" and corrupt cadres, leading to optimism that the period of gangsterism was over.[31] However, local media later highlighted the apparent reliance by the authorities on torture to extract confessions upon which convictions were based. In December 2009, one defence lawyer was controversially arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for "coaching his client to make false claims of torture" and in July 2010, another lawyer released videotapes of his client describing the torture in detail.[32] In 2014, four policemen involved in the interrogation were charged with the practice of "opposed illegal interrogation techniques", considered by observers to be torture.[33]


Chongqing commercial skyscrapers

Physical geography and topography

Geographic coordinates
latitude 28° 10' to 32° 13' N, longitude 105° 17' to 110° 11' E.
Neighbouring provinces
Hubei (east), Hunan (southeast), Guizhou (south), Sichuan (west), Shaanxi (north)

Chongqing is situated at the transitional area between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the plain on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the sub-tropical climate zone often swept by moist monsoons. It often rains at night in late spring and early summer, and thus the city is famous for its "night rain in the Ba Mountains", as described by poets throughout Chinese history.[34] The municipality reaches a maximum width of 470 kilometres (290 mi) from east to west, and a maximum length of 450 km (280 mi) from north to south.[35] It borders the following provinces: Hubei in the east, Hunan in the southeast, Guizhou in the south, Sichuan in the west and northwest, and Shaanxi to the north in its northeast corner.[36]

You ask when I'm coming, I do not know
It's autumn and the night rain is flooding the mountain pool.
When can we trim wicks again by the window
When can we talk all night while the mountain rains?

Li Shangyin, Written on a Rainy Night-A Letter to the North

Chongqing covers a large area crisscrossed by rivers and mountains. The Jialing River joins the Yangtze in Chongqing.[39]

The central urban area of Chongqing, or Chongqing proper, is a city of unique features. Built on mountains and partially surrounded by the Yangtze and Jialing rivers, it is known as a "mountain city" and a "city on rivers".[40] The night scene of the city is very illuminated, with millions of lights and their reflection on the rivers. With its special Li Bai, a famous poet of the Tang Dynasty, was inspired by the natural scenery and wrote this epigram.[41]

Specifically, the central urban area is located on a huge folding area (similar to the landscape of theAppalachian Mountains in the United States), and the Yuzhong District, Nan'an District, Shapingba District and Jiangbei District are located right on a big syncline. And the "Southern Mountain of Chongqing" (Tongluo Mountain), along with the Zhongliang Mountain are two anticlines next to the syncline of downtown.[42]

Li Bai's Poem of Chongqing's Baidi Cheng

Leaving at dawn the White Emperor crowned with cloud,
I've sailed a thousand li through canyons in a day.
With the monkeys' adieus the riverbanks are loud,
My skiff has left ten thousand mountains far away.


All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city.

Annual average
18.24 °C (64.8 °F) [43]
January average
7.8 °C (46.0 °F) [43]
August average
28.5 °C (83.3 °F) [43]
Historical Temperature range
−3.0 to 44.0 °C (27 to 111 °F) [44]
Total annual hours of sunshine
Annual precipitation
1,104 millimetres (43.5 in)
Climate chart ()
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Chongqing has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), and for most of the year experiences very humid conditions. Known as one of the "Three Furnaces" of the Yangtze River, along with Wuhan and Nanjing, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of 33 to 34 °C (91 to 93 °F) in July and August in the urban area.[45] Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan Basin causes it to have one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, at only 1,055 hours, lower than much of Northern Europe; the monthly percent possible sunshine in the city proper ranges from a mere 8% in December and January to 48% in August. Extreme temperatures of Chongqing central urban area have ranged from −3.0 to 44.0 °C (27 to 111 °F).[46]

As exemplified by Youyang County below, conditions are often cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.

Air quality

Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year,[47] is also known as the "Fog City" (雾都), and a thick layer of fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn.[48] "There is an old saying in China, probably two thousand years old, that 'a Szechuen dog barks at a sun,' because the sun so seldom appears," [49] During the Second Sino-Japanese War, this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army.

According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and the Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Chongqing is among one of the ten most air-polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, seven of the ten most air-polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Jinan and Shijiazhuang.[50]

Administrative divisions

Administrative map of the Chongqing municipality
Jiefangbei CBD, Central Chongqing at night
A close view of Jiefangbei CBD, Central Chongqing at night
A view of the Jiefangbei CBD skyline in Yuzhong district

Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011[51]), consisting of 23 districts, 11 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and much of its administrative area, which spans over 80,000 square kilometres (30,900 sq mi), is rural.

Pinyin name Hanzi Previous
Banan 巴南区 Chongqing
Beibei 北碚区
Bishan 璧山区
Changshou 长寿区
Dadukou 大渡口区
Dazu 大足区
Fuling 涪陵区 Fuling
Hechuan 合川区 Chongqing
Jiangbei 江北区
Jiangjin 江津区
Jiulongpo 九龙坡区
Nan'an 南岸区
Nanchuan 南川区 Fuling
Qianjiang 黔江区 Qianjiang
Shapingba 沙坪坝区 Chongqing
Tongliang 铜梁区
Tongnan 潼南区
Qijiang 綦江区
Rongchang 荣昌区
Wanzhou 万州区 Wanxian
Yubei 渝北区 Chongqing
Yongchuan 永川区
Yuzhong 渝中区
Pinyin name Hanzi Previous
Chengkou 城口县 Wanxian
Dianjiang 垫江县 Fuling
Fengdu 丰都县
Fengjie 奉节县 Wanxian
Kai 开县
Liangping 梁平县
Wulong 武隆县 Fuling
Wushan 巫山县 Wanxian
Wuxi 巫溪县
Yunyang 云阳县
Zhong 忠县
Autonomous counties
Pinyin name Hanzi Previous
Pengshui Miao and Tujia 彭水苗族土家族自治县 Qianjiang
Shizhu Tujia 石柱土家族自治县
Xiushan Tujia and Miao 秀山土家族苗族自治县
Youyang Tujia and Miao 酉阳土家族苗族自治县

a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.

Central Chongqing


The urban area of Chongqing is known as Central Chongqing (重庆主城区). Spanning approximately 5473 square kilometers, it includes the following nine districts:[52][53]

  • Yuzhong District (渝中区, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government and international business offices are located. It is located on the peninsula surrounded by E-ling Hill, Yangtze River and Jialing River.
  • Jiangbei District (江北区), located in the north of Jialing River.
  • Shapingba District (沙坪坝区), roughly located between Jialing River and Zhongliang Mountain.
  • Jiulongpo District (九龙坡区), roughly located between Yangtze River and Zhongliang Mountain.
  • Nan'an District (南岸区, or "Southern Bank District"), located in the south side of Yangtze River.
  • Dadukou District (大渡口区)
  • Banan District (巴南区, or "Southern Chongqing District"). Previously called Ba County, and changed to the current name in 1994. Its northern area merged into central Chongqing, and its capital town Yudong is a satellite city of Central Chongqing.
  • Yubei District (渝北区, or "Northern Chongqing District"). Previously called Jiangbei County, and changed into the current name in 1994. Its southern area merged into Central Chongqing, and the capital town Lianglu Town is a satellite city of Central Chongqing.
  • Beibei District (北碚区), a satellite city northwest of Central Chongqing.
  • Bishan District (壁山区), a new satellite city west of Central Chongqing
Panorama of the Chongqing Skyline, taken from the southeast hills in 2010


Central Chongqing is in the eastern edge of Sichuan Basin. Yangtze River meets its major tributary stream, Jialing River, in Central Chongqing. The city is located on a big syncline valley. Two tributary ranges of Huaying Mountain (Zhongling Mountain and Tongluo Mountain) roughly forms the eastern and western boundaries of Central Chongqing. The highest point in downtown is the top of E-ling Hill, which is a smaller syncline hill that keeps Yangtze River and Jialing River apart for some more kilometers. The elevation of E-ling Hill is 379 meters. The lowest point in Central Chongqing is Chaotian Gate, where the two rivers merge with each other. The altitude there is 160 meters. The average height of Central Chongqing is 259 meters. In the near-suburban Chongqing, however, there are several high mountains. The highest one is called Wugong Ling Mountain, with the altitude of 1709.4 meters.


With many bridges on Yangtze River and Jialing River in urban area, Central Chongqing is sometimes called the Capital of Bridge of China. The first major bridge built in urban Chongqing is the Niujiaotuo Jialing River Bridge built in 1958. The first bridge on Yangtze River is the Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge (or Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge) built in 1977.

Till 2014, within the range of Central Chongqing, there are 20 bridges on Yangtze River and 28 bridges on Jialing River. Bridges in Chongqing have various structures and shapes, making Chongqing a museum of bridges.

Aerial tramway

Chongqing is the only Chinese city that keeps public aerial tramways. Historically there were three aerial tramways in Chongqing: the Yangtze River Tramway, the Jialing River Tramway and the South Mountain Tramway. Currently, only Yangtze River Tramway is still operating. This tramway is 1,160 meters long, connecting the southern and northern banks of Yangtze River. The daily passenger volume is about 10,000.


According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.[55]

This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.[56]

The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.[56]

In terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0–14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15–64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.[57]

Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 two-person, 3,190,000 three-person, 1,790,000 four-person, 783,000 five-person, 270,000 six-person, 89,000 seven-person, 28,000 eight-person, 6,000 nine-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.[58]

Politics and military

Municipality Hall

The politics of Chongqing is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the People's Republic of China. The Mayor of Chongqing is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Chongqing. Since Chongqing is a centrally administered municipality, the mayor occupies the same level in the order of precedence as provincial governors. However, in the city's dual party-government governing system, the mayor has less power than the Chongqing Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Chongqing CPC Party Chief".[59]

Chongqing also has the distinction of having been the wartime capital of China during the Second Sino-Japanese war, and, for a brief period, being the seat of administration for the Republic of China government before its departure to Taiwan.[60] It also contains a military museum named after the Chinese Korean War hero Qiu Shaoyun.[61]

Chongqing is headquarters of the 13th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two group armies that comprise the Chengdu Military Region responsible for the defence of China's southwestern borders with India and Myanmar, as well as security in Tibet.[62]


Commercial skyscrapers and high-rise buildings around the People's Liberation Monument in downtown Jiefangbei
WalMart super market at Nan'an District
Jiefangbei-People's Liberation (World War II victory monument)
The pedestrian mall in downtown Jiefangbei
The pedestrian mall in Nanping CBD

Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right in March 1997[63] in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy).[64] An important industrial area in western China,[65] Chongqing is also rapidly urbanising. For instance, statistics[66] suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 square metres (1.5 million square feet) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy.

Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing and neighbouring Sichuan have been important military bases in weapons research and development.[67] Chongqing's industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, cars, chemicals, textiles, machinery and electronics are common.

Chongqing is China's third largest centre for motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million cars and 8.6 million motorcycles.[68] Leading makers of cars and motor bikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise, as well as Ford Motor Company, with the US car giant having 3 plants in Chongqing.[69] The municipality is also one of the nine largest iron and steel centres in China and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company and South West Aluminium which is Asia's largest aluminium plant.[70] Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits, especially oranges, are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese. Coal reserves ≈ 4.8 billion tonnes. Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m3 - more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium (China has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area. although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily polluting and unsafe.[71] Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan province before reaching Chongqing[72] and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ).[73] Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its car industry and account for 25% of its exports.[74]

The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment.[68][75] The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing Yangtze River port.[76] These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from car to finance and retailing; such as Ford,[77] Mazda,[78] HSBC,[79] Standard Chartered Bank,[80] Citibank,[81] Deutsche Bank,[82] ANZ Bank,[83] Scotiabank,[84] Wal-Mart,[85] Metro AG[86] and Carrefour,[87] among other multinational corporations.

Chongqing's nominal GDP in 2011 reached 1001.1 billion yuan (US$158.9 billion) while registering an annual growth of 16.4%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government support to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.[88]

Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[89]

Economic and technological development zones

The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:

  • Chongqing Chemical Industrial Park[90]
  • Chongqing Economic & Technological Development Zone[91]
  • Chongqing Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone[92]
  • Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ)[93]
  • Chongqing Export Processing Zone[94]
  • Jianqiao Industrial Park (located in Dadukou District)[95]
  • Liangjiang New Area[96]
  • Liangjiang Cloud Computing Center (the largest of its kind in China)[97]

Chongqing itself is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Xi'an.


Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing is a major transportation hub in southwestern China.

As of October 2014, the municipality had 31 bridges across the Yangtze River including over a dozen in the city's urban core.[98] Aside from the city's first two Yangtze River bridges, which were built, respectively, in 1960 and 1977, all of the other bridges were completed since 1995.

River port

Hydrofoil on the Yangtze in the outer reaches of the municipality
The confluence of the Jialing River and Yangtze River, as seen from Chongqing

Chongqing is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the

Preceded by
Capital of China
Republic of China
21 November 1937 — 5 May 1946
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Capital of China
Republic of China
14 October 1949 — 30 November 1949
Succeeded by
  • Chongqing Municipal Government website

External links

  • Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Chongqing," pp.325-362 in The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions.  
  • Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Revisiting Chongqing: China's Second World War Temporary National Capital," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch, Vol.45. Hong Kong: Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch. 
  • Huang, Jiren (1999). Lao Chongqing (Old Chongqing): Ba Shan Ye Yu (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series. Nanjing: Jiangsu Meishu Chubanshe (Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House). 
  • Kapp, Robert A. (1974). "Chungking as a Center of Warlord Power, 1926-1937," pp.143-170 in The Chinese City Between Two Worlds, ed. by Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 
  • Kapp, Robert A. (1973). Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power, 1911-1938. New Haven: Yale University Press. 
  • Liao, Qingyu (2005). Chongqing Ge Le Shan Pei Du Yizhi (The Construction of War-time Capital on the Gele Mountain, Chongqing). Chengdu: Sichuan Da Xue Chubanshe (Sichuan University Press). 
  • Long, Juncai (2005). Sui Yue Ya Feng de Jiyi: Chongqing Kang Zhan Yizhi (Covered Memory of Flowing Years: Site[s] of [the] Anti-Japanese War in Chongqing). Chongqing: Xi Nan Shi Fang Da Xue Chubanshe (Southwest University Press). 
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  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[147] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. ^ This may include:
  1. ^ Ch'ungk'ing, Ch'ung K'ing, Chongking, and other renderings are also found in older literature. The Beijing-based Standard Chinese pronunciation is rendered in Wade-Giles as Ch'ung-ch'ing, and in the latter 20th century this form was used officially in Taiwan and in Western academic literature.


See also

City Country State/Region Since Reference
Chennai(钦奈) India Tamil Nadu 2015 [152]

Chongqing has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world.

Sister cities

Consulate Date Consular District
 Canadian Consulate-General, Chongqing[150] 05.1998 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 British Consulate-General, Chongqing[150] 03.2000 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Cambodian Consulate-General, Chongqing[150] 12.2004 Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi
 Japanese Consulate-General, Chongqing[150] 01.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi
 Danish Consulate, Chongqing[150] 07.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Filipino Consulate-General, Chongqing[150] 12.2008 Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Hungarian Consulate-General, Chongqing[150] 02.2010 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu
 Ethiopian Consulate-General, Chongqing[150] 11.2011 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Italian Consulate-General, Chongqing[151] 12.2013 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Netherlands Consulate-General, Chongqing[151] 01.2014 Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi


International relations

International schools

Notable high schools

Entrance to the Nankai School

Colleges and universities


Buddhist temple in Jiulongpo.

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 72.32% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and minorities of Muslims.

The predominant religions in Chongqing are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 26.63% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 1.05% of the population identifies as Christian.[147]

Religion in Chongqing[147][note 1]

  Christianity (1.05%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (72.32%)


  • The Chongqing Olympic Sports Center is a multi-purpose stadium. It is currently used mostly for football matches, as it has a grass surface, and can hold 58,680. It was built in 2004.[144]
  • Yanghe Stadium is a multi-use stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 32,000 people, and is the home of Chongqing Lifan in the Chinese Super League. The stadium was purchased by the Lifan Group in 2001 for RMB80 million and immediately replaced Datianwan Stadium as the home of Chongqing Lifan.[145]
  • Datianwan Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium has a capacity 32,000 people, and up until 2001 was the home of Chongqing Lifan.[146]

Sport venues in Chongqing include:

Sport venues

Chongqing Soaring Dragons became the 20th team playing in Chinese Basketball Association in 2013. They play at Datianwan Arena, in the same sporting complex as Datianwan Stadium.[143]


Chongqing FC was an association football club located in the city, and competed in China League One, the country's second-tier football division, before being relegated to the China League Two, and dissolving due to a resultant lack of funds.[142]

Chongqing Lifan is a professional Chinese football club who currently plays in the Chinese Super LEague. They are owned by the Chongqing-based Lifan Group, which manufactures motorcycles, cars and spare parts.[139] Originally called Qianwei (Vanguard) Wuhan, the club formed in 1995 to take part in the recently developed, fully professional Chinese football league system. They would quickly rise to top tier of the system and experience their greatest achievement in winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup,[140] and coming in fourth within the league. However, since then they have struggled to replicate the same success, and have twice been relegated from the top tier.[141]

Professional association football teams in Chongqing include:

Association football

Sports and recreation

  • Hot pot - Chongqing's local culinary specialty. Tables in hotpot restaurants usually have a central vat, or pot, where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a spicy broth. As well as beef, pork, lotus and other vegetables, items such as pig's kidney, brain, duck's bowels and cow's stomach are often consumed.[134]
  • Jiangtuan fish - since Chongqing is located along Jialing River, visitors have a good opportunity to sample varieties of aquatic products. Among them, is a fish local to the region, Jiangtuan fish: Hypophthalmichthys nobilis although more commonly known as bighead carp.[135] The fish is often served steamed or baked.[136]
  • Pork leg cooked with rock candy - A common household dish of the Chongqing people, the finished dish, known as red in colour and tender in taste, has been described as having strong and sweet aftertaste.[137]
  • Qianzhang (skimmed soy bean cream) - Qianzhang is the cream skimmed from soybean milk. In order to create, this several steps must be followed very carefully. First, soybeans are soaked in water, ground, strained, boiled, restrained several times and spread over gauze until delicate, snow-white cream is formed. The paste can also be hardened, cut into slivers and seasoned with sesame oil, garlic and chili oil. Another variation is to bake the cream and fry it with bacon, which is described as soft and sweet.[138]
  • Quanshui Chicken (Spring Water Chicken) - Quanshui Chicken is cooked with the natural spring water in the Southern Mountain of Chongqing.

Chongqing food is largely a hybrid of Sichuan cuisine and local specialty dishes. Chongqing's city centre has many restaurants and food stalls where meals often cost less than RMB10. Local specialties here include dumplings and pickled vegetables and, different from many other Chinese cuisines, Chongqing dishes are suitable for the solo diner as they are often served in small individual sized portions.[133] Among the delicacies and local specialties are these dishes:


The Chongqing People's Broadcast Station is Chongqing's largest radio station.[130] The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV, claimed to be the 4th largest television station in China.[131] Chongqing TV broadcasts many local-oriented channels, and can be viewed on many TV sets throughout China. The Chongqing Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one news website.[132]


Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District.
The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town.
Baotaoping Wharf in Fengjie County
The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqing city
  • The Baiheliang Underwater Museum, China's first underwater museum,[118]
  • The Memorial of Great Tunnel Massacre, a former air-raid shelter where a major massacre occurred during World War II.
  • The Great Hall of the People in Chongqing is based on the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. This is one of the largest public assembly buildings in China which, though built in modern times, emulates traditional architectural styles. It is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways,[119]
  • The large domed Three Gorges Museum presents the history, culture, and environment of the Three Gorges area and Chongqing.
  • Chongqing Science and Technology Museum has an IMAX theatre.
  • Luohan Si, a Ming Dynasty temple,[120]
  • Former sites for embassies of major countries during the 1940s. As the capital at that time, Chongqing had many residential and other buildings for these officials.[121]

As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies during World War II, as well as being a strategic center of many other wars throughout China's history. Chongqing has many historic war-time buildings or sites, some of which have since been destroyed. These sites include the People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city. It used to be the highest building in the area, but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China for that purpose.[115] Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city. The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum, dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, a World War II general,[116] the air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and the Red Rock Village Museum, a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II. It is where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang.[117]

Martyrs' Cemetery


The language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan, speak Sichuanese, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect and Minjiang dialect spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang.[113] There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region (湖广填四川) during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people.[114]

Zhongshan Ancient Town, Jiangjin, Chongqing



By 2050, Chongqing was initially planning to have ten metro lines, totaling 513 km (319 mi), with 270 stations, although more recent reports have now indicated as many as 18 lines are planned to be in operation.[112]

As of 2012, three metro lines, the 14 km (8.7 mi) long CRT Line 1, a conventional subway, and the 19 km (12 mi) long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), Line 3, a new heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown, have already opened.[110] A new subway, Line 6, is currently in trials and is expected to open later in 2012.[111]

According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with light rail (heavy monorail). By 2020 this network will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line; Line 1 and Line 6 are underground subway while Lines 2 and 3 are High Capacity monorail. These improvements will add 363.5 km (225.9 mi) of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.[109]

The three main forms of public transport in Chongqing are CRT metro, intercity railway, and the ubiquitous bus system.

CRT Line 2 in Chongqing city

Public transport

There are two other airports in Chongqing Municipality: Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport (IATA: JIQ, ICAO: ZUQJ) and Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport (IATA: WXN, ICAO: ZUWX). They are both class 4C airports and serve passenger flights to some domestic destinations including Beijing, Shanghai and Kunming. Two more airports are being constructed soon: Wulong Xiannüshan Airport and Wushan Shennüfeng Airport.

Currently, Chongqing Airport is the only facility in central and western China that has metro access (CRT Line 3) to its central city, and two runways in normal use.[108]

Freight development has increased, especially in the export of high value electronics, such as laptop computers. It is envisaged that Chongqing can become the global leading exporter of these products by air, signs of this potential rise being the addition of cargo routes to Frankfurt,[105] Sydney, Chicago, and New York City.[106][107]

Chongqing airport was the 10th busiest airport nationwide in 2010 measured by passenger traffic, handling 15,802,334 people. The airport was also the 11th busiest airport by cargo traffic and by traffic movements in China. During the first half of year 2011, Chongqing airport handled 8.87 million passengers, and surpassed Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport (8.48 million) to become the 9th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mainland China.[104]

Currently, Jiangbei airport has two terminals: Terminal 1 (old original terminal) serving international flights; Terminal 2, larger building split into Halls A and B serving domestic flights. The first, second and third phase of the airport came into operation in January 1990, December 2004, and December 2010 respectively. The domestic terminal is capable of handling 30 million passengers while its international terminal is able to handle more than 1 million passengers annually. A third terminal that will more than double capacity of the airport is currently under construction along with a third runway.

The major airport of Chongqing is Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK). It is located in Yubei District. The airport offers a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East and Europe. It is located 21 km (13 mi) north of the city-centre of Chongqing and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China.[103] Jiangbei airport is a hub for China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines and Hainan Airlines's new China West Air. Chongqing also is a focus city of Air China, therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Skyteam's international network. The airport currently has two parallel runways in operation. It serves domestic routes to most other Chinese cities, as well as international routes to Seoul, Bangkok, Phuket, Osaka, Singapore, Chiang Mai, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Malé, Bali, Zadar, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Batam, Rome and Helsinki.

CRT Line 3 in Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport


  • Chongqing-Chengdu Expressway
  • Chongqing-Chengdu 2nd Expressway (under construction)
  • Chongqing-Wanzhou-Yichang Highway (Wanzhou-Yichang section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Guiyang Highway
  • Chongqing-Changsha Expressway (Xiushan-Changsha section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi'a Highway (Dazhou-Xi'an section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Suining Expressway
  • Chongqing-Nanchong Expressway
  • China National Highway 210
  • China National Highway 212

Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing is a large manufacturing centre for these types of vehicles.[102]

Traditionally, the road network in Chongqing has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area, especially in the Yuzhong District. In other places, such as Jiangbei, large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. Construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing to neighbouring provinces. Several ring roads have also been constructed. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the world's highest road bridges.[101]

Bicycling can be a challenge in Chongqing


Chongqing is a major rail hub nationally.

Chongqing is a major freight destination for rail with continued development with improved handling facilities. Due to subsidies and incentives, the relocation and construction of many factories in Chongqing has seen a huge increase in rail traffic.

  • Chongqing Railway Station in Yuzhong, accessible via Metro Lines 1 & 3 (Lianglukou Metro Station), is the city's oldest railway station and located near the city centre. The station handles mostly long-distance trains. There are plans for a major renovation and overhaul of this station, thus many services have been transferred to Chongqing North Railway Station.
  • Chongqing North Railway Station is a newly constructed station handling many long-distance services and high-speed rail services to Chengdu. It is connected to Metro Line 3.
  • Chongqing West Railway Station, formerly called Shapingba Railway Station, in Shapingba, handles many local and regional train service. It is undergoing redevelopment.

Major train stations in Chongqing:

Chongqing funicular railway



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