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Information system

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Information system

An information system is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.

A computer Information System (IS) is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information.[1][2][3][4] The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.

Information system is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an Information System having a definitive Boundary, Users, Processors, Stores, Inputs, Outputs and the aforementioned communication networks [5]

Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and

  • Association for Information Systems (AIS)
  • IS History website
  • Center for Information Systems Research - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • European Research Center for Information Systems
  • Index of Information Systems Journals
  • European eCompetence Frame

External links

  • Rainer, R. Kelly and Cegielski, Casey G. (2009). "Introduction to Information Systems: Enabling and Transforming Business, 3rd Edition"
  • Kroenke, David (2008). Using MIS - 2nd Edition.
  • Lindsay, John (2000). Information Systems – Fundamentals and Issues. Kingston University, School of Information Systems
  • Dostal, J. School information systems (Skolni informacni systemy). In Infotech 2007 - modern information and communication technology in education. Olomouc, EU: Votobia, 2007. s. 540 – 546. ISBN 978-80-7220-301-7.
  • O'Leary, Timothy and Linda. (2008). Computing Essentials Introductory 2008. McGraw-Hill on
  • Imperial College London - Information Systems Engineering degree - Information Systems Engineering
  • Sage, S.M. "Information Systems: A brief look into history", Datamation, 63-69, Nov. 1968. - Overview of the early history of IS.

Further reading

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ D’Atri A., De Marco M., Casalino N. (2008). "Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies", Physica-Verlag, Springer, Germany, pp. 1-416, doi 10.1007/978-3-7908-2010-2 ISBN 978-3-7908-2009-6
  5. ^ Jessup, Leonard M.; Joseph S. Valacich (2008). Information Systems Today (3rd ed.). Pearson Publishing. Pages ??? & Glossary p. 416
  6. ^ Bulgacs, Simon (2013). "The first phase of creating a standardised international innovative technological implementation framework/software application". Int. J. Business and Systems Research, 7 (3): 250.  
  7. ^ SEI Report, "Glossary" at the Wayback Machine (archived September 3, 2007)
  8. ^ Kroenke, D M. (2008). Experiencing MIS. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ
  9. ^ O'Brien, J A. (2003). Introduction to information systems: essentials for the e-business enterprise. McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA
  10. ^ Alter, S. (2003) "18 Reasons Why IT-Reliant Work Systems Should Replace ‘The IT Artifact’ as the Core Subject Matter of the IS Field," Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 12(23), Oct., pp. 365-394,
  11. ^ Alter, S. (2013) "Work System Theory: Overview of Core Concepts, Extensions, and Challenges for the Future," Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 14(2), pp. 72-121.
  12. ^ Alter, S. (2006) The Work System Method: Connecting People, Processes, and IT for Business Results. Works System Press, CA
  13. ^ Beynon-Davies P. (2009). Business Information Systems. Palgrave, Basingstoke
  14. ^ Marc S. Silver, M. Lynne Markus,  
  15. ^ The Joint Task Force for Computing Curricula 2005. Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report (pdf)
  16. ^ Rockart et al. (1996) Eight imperatives for the new IT organization Sloan Management review.
  17. ^ Laudon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P. Management Information Systems, (2nd edition), Macmillan, 1988.
  18. ^ Rainer, R. Kelly Jr and Casey G. Cegielski. Introduction to Information System: Support and Transforming Business Fourth Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2012. Print.
  19. ^ Neumann, Gustaf; Sobernig, Stefan; Aram, Michael (February 2014). "Evolutionary Business Information Systems". Business and Information Systems Engineering 6 (1): 33–36.  
  20. ^ Aram, Michael; Neumann, Gustaf (2015-07-01). "Multilayered analysis of co-development of business information systems" (PDF). Journal of Internet Services and Applications 6 (1).  
  21. ^ Using MIS. Kroenke. 2009.  
  22. ^  
  23. ^ Computer Studies. Frederick Nyawaya. 2008.  
  24. ^ Kelly, Sue; Gibson, Nicola; Holland, Christopher; Light, Ben (July 1999). "Focus Issue on Legacy Information Systems and Business Process Engineering: a Business Perspective of Legacy Information Systems". Communications of the AIS 2 (7): 1–27. 
  25. ^ Archibald, J.A. (May 1975). "Computer Science education for majors of other disciplines". AFIPS Joint Computer Conferences: 903–906. Computer science spreads out over several related disciplines, and shares with these disciplines certain sub-disciplines that traditionally have been located exclusively in the more conventional disciplines 
  26. ^ Denning, Peter (July 1999). "COMPUTER SCIENCE: THE DISCIPLINE". Encyclopaedia of Computer Science (2000 Edition). The Domain of Computer Science: Even though computer science addresses both human-made and natural information processes, the main effort in the discipline has been directed toward human-made processes, especially information processing systems and machines 
  27. ^ Coy, Wolfgang (June 2004). "Between the disciplines". ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 36 (2): 7–10.  
  28. ^ Hoganson, Ken (December 2001). "Alternative curriculum models for integrating computer science and information systems analysis, recommendations, pitfalls, opportunities, accreditations, and trends". Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges 17 (2): 313–325.  
  29. ^ Davis, Timothy; Geist, Robert; Matzko, Sarah; Westall, James (March 2004). "τ´εχνη: A First Step". Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education: 125–129.  
  30. ^ Hoganson, Ken (December 2001). "Alternative curriculum models for integrating computer science and information systems analysis, recommendations, pitfalls, opportunities, accreditations, and trends". Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges 17 (2): 313–325.  
  31. ^ Khazanchi, Deepak; Bjorn Erik Munkvold (Summer 2000). "Is information system a science? an inquiry into the nature of the information systems discipline". ACM SIGMIS Database 31 (3): 24–42.  
  32. ^ Denning, Peter (June 2007). "Ubiquity a new interview with Peter Denning on the great principles of computing" 2007 (June). pp. 1–1. People from other fields are saying they have discovered information processes in their deepest structures and that collaboration with computing is essential to them. 
  33. ^ "Computer science is the study of information" New Jersey Institute of Technology, Gutenberg Information Technologies Archived September 15, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Computer science is the study of computation." Computer Science Department, College of Saint Benedict, Saint John's University
  35. ^ "Computer Science is the study of all aspects of computer systems, from the theoretical foundations to the very practical aspects of managing large software projects." Massey University
  36. ^ Pearson Custom Publishing & West Chester University, Custom Program for Computer Information Systems, Pearson Custom Publishing, (2009) Glossary p. 694
  37. ^ Polack, Jennifer (December 2009). "Planning a CIS Education Within a CS Framework". Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges 25 (2): 100–106.  
  38. ^ Hayes, Helen; Onkar Sharma (February 2003). "A decade of experience with a common first year program for computer science, information systems and information technology majors". Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges 18 (3): 217–227.  
  39. ^ CSTA Committee, Allen Tucker, et alia, A Model Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science (Final Report), (Association for Computing Machinery, Inc., 2006) Abstraction & p. 2
  40. ^ Freeman, Peter; Hart, David (August 2004). "A Science of Design for Software-Intensive Systems Computer science and engineering needs an intellectually rigorous, analytical, teachable design process to ensure development of systems we all can live with". Communications of the ACM 47 (8): 19–21.  
  41. ^ Culnan, M. J. Mapping the Intellectual Structure of MIS, 1980-1985: A Co-Citation Analysis, MIS Quarterly, 1987, pp. 341-353.
  42. ^ Keen, P. G. W. MIS Research: Reference Disciplines and A Cumulative Tradition, in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information Systems, E. McLean (ed.), Philadelphia, PA, 1980, pp. 9-18.
  43. ^ Lee, A. S. Architecture as A Reference Discipline for MIS, in Information Systems Research: Contemporary Approaches and Emergent Traditions, H.-E. Nisen, H. K. Klein, and R. A. Hirschheim (eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991, pp. 573-592.
  44. ^ Mingers, J., and Stowell, F. (eds.). Information Systems: An Emerging Discipline?, McGraw- Hill, London, 1997.
  45. ^ John, W., and Joe, P. (2002) "Strategic Planning for Information System." 3rd Ed. West Sussex. John wiley & Sons Ltd
  46. ^ a b c "Scoping the Discipline of Information Systems"
  47. ^ , 30, 13-20.International Journal of Information ManagementBasden, A. (2010) On Using Spheres of Meaning to Define and Dignify the IS Discipline. It employs the philosophy of the late Herman Dooyeweerd to differentiate distinct aspects or 'spheres of meaning'. The paper suggests that while computer science finds the formative aspect, of shaping, structuring, processing, of central interest, and business and organizational fields find the economic and social aspects of central interest, the Information Systems field can find the lingual aspect of central interest, while making links with the aspects of the neighbouring disciplines.
  48. ^ "Information Systems". Sloan Career Cornerstone Center; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2008. 
  49. ^ Galliers, R.D., Markus, M.L., & Newell, S. (Eds) (2006). Exploring Information Systems Research Approaches. New York, NY: Routledge.
  50. ^ Ciborra, C. (2002). The Labyrinths of Information: Challenging the Wisdom of Systems. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
  51. ^ Hevner, March, Park & Ram (2004): Design Science in Information Systems Research. MIS Quarterly, 28(1), 75-105.
  52. ^ March S., Smith G. (1995) Design and natural science in Information Technology (IT), Decision Support Systems, Vol. 15, pp. 251- 266.
  53. ^ Avgerou, C. (2000): Information systems: what sort of science is it? Omega, 28, 567-579.
  54. ^ Benbasat, I., Zmud, R. (2003): The identity crisis within the IS discipline: defining and communicating the discipline’s core properties, MIS Quarterly, 27(2), 183-194.
  55. ^ Agarwal, R., Lucas, H. (2005): The information systems identity crisis: focusing on high- visibility and high-impact research, MIS Quarterly, 29(3), 381-398.
  56. ^ El Sawy, O. (2003): The IS core –IX: The 3 faces of IS identity: connection, immersion, and fusion. Communications of AIS, 12, 588-598.
  57. ^ Mansour, O., Ghazawneh, A. (2009) Research in Information Systems: Implications of the constant changing nature of IT capabilities in the social computing era, in Molka-Danielsen, J. (Ed.): Proceedings of the 32nd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 32, Inclusive Design, Molde University College, Molde, Norway, August 9–12, 2009. ISBN 978-82-7962-120-1.
  58. ^ Orlikowski, W., Iacono, C. (2001): Research commentary: desperately seeking the "IT" in IT research—a call to theorizing about the IT artifact. Information Systems Research, 12(2), 121-134.
  59. ^ Kock, N., Gray, P., Hoving, R., Klein, H., Myers, M., & Rockart, J. (2002). Information Systems Research Relevance Revisited: Subtle Accomplishment, Unfulfilled Promise, or Serial Hypocrisy? Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 8(23), 330-346.
  60. ^ Casalino, N., Mazzone, G. (2008): Externalization of a banking information systems function. Features, regulatory and critical aspects, in Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies, D’Atri A., De Marco M., Casalino N. (Eds.), Physica-Verlag, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 89-96, ISBN 978-3-7908-2009-6, doi 10.1007/978-3-7908-2010-2_12
  61. ^ Senior Scholars (2007) AIS Senior Scholars Forum Subcommittee on Journals: A baseket of six (or eight) A* journals in Information Systems Archived at


See also

A number of annual information systems conferences are run in various parts of the world, the majority of which are peer reviewed. The AIS directly runs the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS) and the Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), while AIS affiliated conferences include the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), the Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), the International Conference on Information Resources Management (Conf-IRM) and the Wuhan International Conference on E-Business (WHICEB). AIS chapter conferences include Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS), Information Systems Research Conference in Scandinavia (IRIS), Information Systems International Conference (ISICO), Conference of the Italian Chapter of AIS (itAIS), Annual Mid-Western AIS Conference (MWAIS) and Annual Conference of the Southern AIS (SAIS).

The international body of Information Systems researchers, the Association for Information Systems (AIS), and its Senior Scholars Forum Subcommittee on Journals (23 April 2007), proposed a 'basket' of journals that the AIS deems as 'excellent', and nominated: Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ), Information Systems Research (ISR), Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS), Journal of Management Information Systems (JMIS), European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS), and Information Systems Journal (ISJ).[61]

In the last ten years the business trend is represented by the considerable increasing of Information Systems Function (ISF) role, especially with regard the enterprise strategies and operations supporting. It became a key-factor to increase productivity and to support new value creation.[60] To study an information system itself, rather than its effects, information systems models are used, such as EATPUT.

Since the study of information systems is an applied field, industry practitioners expect information systems research to generate findings that are immediately applicable in practice. This is not always the case however, as information systems researchers often explore behavioral issues in much more depth than practitioners would expect them to do. This may render information systems research results difficult to understand, and has led to criticism.[59]

Although Information Systems as a discipline has been evolving for over 30 years now,[53] the core focus or identity of IS research is still subject to debate among scholars.[54][55][56] There are two main views around this debate: a narrow view focusing on the IT artifact as the core subject matter of IS research, and a broad view that focuses on the interplay between social and technical aspects of IT that is embedded into a dynamic evolving context.[57] A third view[58] calls on IS scholars to pay balanced attention to both the IT artifact and its context.

  1. Build an artifact to perform a specific task.
  2. Evaluate the artifact to determine if any progress has been achieved.
  3. Given an artifact whose performance has been evaluated, it is important to determine why and how the artifact worked or did not work within its environment. Therefore, theorize and justify theories about IT artifacts.

Also research activities including:

  1. Constructs which are concepts that form the vocabulary of a domain. They constitute a conceptualization used to describe problems within the domain and to specify their solutions.
  2. A model which is a set of propositions or statements expressing relationships among constructs.
  3. A method which is a set of steps (an algorithm or guideline) used to perform a task. Methods are based on a set of underlying constructs and a representation (model) of the solution space.
  4. An instantiation is the realization of an artifact in its environment.

Salvatore March and Gerald Smith[52] proposed a framework for researching different aspects of Information Technology including outputs of the research (research outputs) and activities to carry out this research (research activities). They identified research outputs as follows:

Information systems research is generally interdisciplinary concerned with the study of the effects of information systems on the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations.[49][50] Hevner et al. (2004)[51] categorized research in IS into two scientific paradigms including behavioral science which is to develop and verify theories that explain or predict human or organizational behavior and design science which extends the boundaries of human and organizational capabilities by creating new and innovative artifacts.

Information systems research

The CIO is the executive who is in charge of the IS function. In most organizations, the CIO works with the chief executive officer (CEO), the chief financial officer (CFO), and other senior executives. Therefore, he or she actively participates in the organization's strategic planning process.

Information technology is important to the operation of contemporary businesses, it offers many employment opportunities. The information systems field includes the people in organizations who design and build information systems, the people who use those systems, and the people responsible for managing those systems. The demand for traditional IT staff such as programmers, business analysts, systems analysts, and designer is significant. Many well-paid jobs exist in areas of Information technology. At the top of the list is the chief information officer (CIO).

There is a wide variety of career paths in the information systems discipline. "Workers with specialized technical knowledge and strong communications skills will have the best prospects. Workers with management skills and an understanding of business practices and principles will have excellent opportunities, as companies are increasingly looking to technology to drive their revenue."[48]

  • IS strategy
  • IS management
  • IS development
  • IS iteration
  • IS organization

Information Systems have a number of different areas of work:

Information systems career pathways

One problem with that approach is that it prevents the IS field from being interested in non-organizational use of ICT, such as in social networking, computer gaming, mobile personal usage, etc. A different way of differentiating the IS field from its neighbours is to ask, "Which aspects of reality are most meaningful in the IS field and other fields?"[47] This approach, based on philosophy, helps to define not just the focus, purpose and orientation, but also the dignity, destiny and responsibility of the field among other fields. International Journal of Information Management, 30, 13-20.

In a broad scope, the term Information Systems is a scientific field of study that addresses the range of strategic, managerial, and operational activities involved in the gathering, processing, storing, distributing, and use of information and its associated technologies in society and organizations.[46] The term information systems is also used to describe an organizational function that applies IS knowledge in industry, government agencies, and not-for-profit organizations.[46] Information Systems often refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology. This interaction can occur within or across organizational boundaries. An information system is the technology an organization uses and also the way in which the organizations interact with the technology and the way in which the technology works with the organization’s business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology (IT) in that an information system has an information technology component that interacts with the processes' components.

Similar to computer science, other disciplines can be seen as both related and foundation disciplines of IS. The domain of study of IS involves the study of theories and practices related to the social and technological phenomena, which determine the development, use, and effects of information systems in organization and society.[45] But, while there may be considerable overlap of the disciplines at the boundaries, the disciplines are still differentiated by the focus, purpose, and orientation of their activities.[46]

Information Systems relationship to Information Technology, Computer Science, Information Science, and Business.

Differentiating IS from related disciplines

The impact on economic models

Several IS scholars have debated the nature and foundations of Information Systems which has its roots in other reference disciplines such as Computer Science, Engineering, Mathematics, Management Science, Cybernetics, and others.[41][42][43][44] Information systems also can be defined as a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that work together to produce quality information.

The field of study called information systems encompasses a variety of topics including systems analysis and design, computer networking, information security, database management and decision support systems. Information management deals with the practical and theoretical problems of collecting and analyzing information in a business function area including business productivity tools, applications programming and implementation, electronic commerce, digital media production, data mining, and decision support. Communications and networking deals with the telecommunication technologies. Information systems bridges business and computer science using the theoretical foundations of information and computation to study various business models and related algorithmic processes within a computer science discipline.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] Computer information system(s) (CIS) is a field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society,[37][38][39] whereas IS emphasizes functionality over design.[40]

The academic discipline

  • Problem recognition and specification
  • Information gathering
  • Requirements specification for the new system
  • System design
  • System construction
  • System implementation
  • Review and maintenance.[23]

Geographic information systems, land information systems, and disaster information systems are examples of emerging information systems, but they can be broadly considered as spatial information systems. System development is done in stages which include:

  • recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions,
  • as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions.

A computer based information system, following a definition of Langefors,[22] is a technologically implemented medium for:

). global information system, offshoring A specific case is the geographical distribution of the development team ([21] Information technology departments in larger organizations tend to strongly influence the development, use, and application of information technology in the organizations. A series of methodologies and processes can be used to develop and use an information system. Many developers now use an engineering approach such as the

Information system development

Certain information systems support parts of organizations, others support entire organizations, and still others, support groups of organizations. Recall that each department or functional area within an organization has its own collection of application programs, or information systems. These functional area information systems (FAIS) are supporting pillars for more general IS namely, Transaction processing systems, enterprise resource planning, office automation system, management information system, decision support system, expert system, executive dashboard, supply chain management system, and electronic commerce system. Dashboards are a special form of IS that support all managers of the organization. They provide rapid access to timely information and direct access to structured information in the form of reports. Expert systems attempt to duplicate the work of human experts by applying reasoning capabilities, knowledge, and expertise within a specific domain.

The first four components (hardware, software, database, and network) make up what is known as the information technology platform. Information technology workers could then use these components to create information systems that watch over safety measures, risk and the management of data. These actions are known as information technology services.[18]

  • Hardware- these are the devices like the monitor, processor, printer and keyboard, all of which work together to accept, process, show data and information.
  • Software- are the programs that allow the hardware to process the data.
  • Databases- are the gathering of associated files or tables containing related data.
  • Networks- are a connecting system that allows diverse computers to distribute resources.
  • Procedures- are the commands for combining the components above to process information and produce the preferred output.

A computer(-based) information system is essentially an IS using computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks. The basic components of computer based information system are:

Some examples of such systems are:

The "classic" view of Information systems found in the textbooks[17] in the 1980s was of a pyramid of systems that reflected the hierarchy of the organization, usually transaction processing systems at the bottom of the pyramid, followed by management information systems, decision support systems, and ending with executive information systems at the top. Although the pyramid model remains useful, since it was first formulated a number of new technologies have been developed and new categories of information systems have emerged, some of which no longer fit easily into the original pyramid model.

A four level

Types of information system

Data is the bridge between hardware and people. This means that the data we collect is only data, until we involve people. At that point, data is now information.

  1. Hardware: The term hardware refers to machinery. This category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipments. Among the support equipments are input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices.
  2. Software: The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts of the system to function in ways that produce useful information from data. Programs are generally stored on some input / output medium, often a disk or tape.
  3. Data: Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. Like programs, data are generally stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them.
  4. Procedures: Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system. "Procedures are to people what software is to hardware" is a common analogy that is used to illustrate the role of procedures in a system.
  5. People: Every system needs people if it is to be useful. Often the most over-looked element of the system are the people, probably the component that most influence the success or failure of information systems. This includes "not only the users, but those who operate and service the computers, those who maintain the data, and those who support the network of computers."
  6. Feedback: it is another component of the IS, that defines that an IS may be provided with a feedback (Although this component isn't necessary to function).

The six components that must come together in order to produce an information system are:

Information technologies are a very important and malleable resource available to executives.[16] Many companies have created a position of Chief Information Officer (CIO) that sits on the executive board with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Chief Technical Officer (CTO). The CTO may also serve as CIO [Chief Information Officer], and vice versa. The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) focuses on information security management.

There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, learning management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes.

Silver et al. (1995) provided two views on IS that includes software, hardware, data, people, and procedures.[14] Zheng provided another system view of information system which also adds processes and essential system elements like environment, boundary, purpose, and interactions. The Association for Computing Machinery defines "Information systems specialists [as] focus[ing] on integrating information technology solutions and business processes to meet the information needs of businesses and other enterprises."[15]



  • Overview 1
  • Types of information system 2
  • Information system development 3
  • The academic discipline 4
  • The impact on economic models 5
  • Differentiating IS from related disciplines 6
  • Information systems career pathways 7
  • Information systems research 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

[13] Information systems are the primary focus of study for

As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.

Alter[10][11] argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities using resources to produce specific products or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information.[12]

Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.[9]


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