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Italo Calvino

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Italo Calvino

deepened his commitment to the Communist cause. Viewing civilian life as a continuation of the partisan struggle, he confirmed his membership of the Italian Communist Party. On reading Vladimir Lenin's State and Revolution, he plunged into post-war political life, associating himself chiefly with the worker's movement in Turin.[24]

In 1947, he graduated with a Master's thesis on Joseph Conrad, wrote short stories in his spare time, and landed a job in the publicity department at the Einaudi publishing house run by Giulio Einaudi. Although brief, his stint put him in regular contact with Cesare Pavese, Natalia Ginzburg, Norberto Bobbio, and many other left-wing intellectuals and writers. He then left Einaudi to work as a journalist for the official Communist daily, L'Unità, and the newborn Communist political magazine, Rinascita. During this period, Pavese and poet Alfonso Gatto were Calvino's closest friends and mentors.[25]

His first novel, Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno (The Path to the Nest of Spiders) written with valuable editorial advice from Pavese, won the Premio Riccione on publication in 1947.[26] With sales topping 5000 copies, a surprise success in postwar Italy, the novel inaugurated Calvino's neorealist period. In a clairvoyant essay, Pavese praised the young writer as a "squirrel of the pen" who "climbed into the trees, more for fun than fear, to observe partisan life as a fable of the forest".[27] In 1948, he interviewed one of his literary idols, Ernest Hemingway, travelling with Natalia Ginzburg to his home in Stresa.

Ultimo viene il corvo (The Crow Comes Last), a collection of stories based on his wartime experiences, was published to acclaim in 1949. Despite the triumph, Calvino grew increasingly worried by his inability to compose a worthy second novel. He returned to Einaudi in 1950, responsible this time for the literary volumes. He eventually became a consulting editor, a position that allowed him to hone his writing talent, discover new writers, and develop into "a reader of texts".[28] In late 1951, presumably to advance in the Communist Party, he spent two months in the Soviet Union as correspondent for l'Unità. While in Moscow, he learned of his father's death on 25 October. The articles and correspondence he produced from this visit were published in 1952, winning the Saint-Vincent Prize for journalism.

Over a seven-year period, Calvino wrote three realist novels, The White Schooner (1947–1949), Youth in Turin (1950–1951), and The Queen's Necklace (1952–54), but all were deemed defective.[29] During the eighteen months it took to complete I giovani del Po (Youth in Turin), he made an important self-discovery: "I began doing what came most naturally to me – that is, following the memory of the things I had loved best since boyhood. Instead of making myself write the book I ought to write, the novel that was expected of me, I conjured up the book I myself would have liked to read, the sort by an unknown writer, from another age and another country, discovered in an attic."[30] The result was Il visconte dimezzato (1952; The Cloven Viscount) composed in 30 days between July and September 1951. The protagonist, a seventeenth century viscount sundered in two by a cannonball, incarnated Calvino's growing political doubts and the divisive turbulence of the Cold War.[31] Skillfully interweaving elements of the fable and the fantasy genres, the allegorical novel launched him as a modern "fabulist".[32] In 1954, Giulio Einaudi commissioned his Fiabe Italiane (1956; Italian Folktales) on the basis of the question, "Is there an Italian equivalent of the Brothers Grimm?"[33] For two years, Calvino collated tales found in 19th century collections across Italy then translated 200 of the finest from various dialects into Italian. Key works he read at this time were Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folktale and Historical Roots of Russian Fairy Tales, stimulating his own ideas on the origin, shape and function of the story.[34]

In 1952 Calvino wrote with Botteghe Oscure, a magazine named after the popular name of the party's head-offices in Rome. He also worked for Il Contemporaneo, a Marxist weekly.

From 1955 to 1958 Calvino had an affair with Italian actress Corriere della Sera in 2004, causing some controversy.[35]

After communism

In 1957, disillusioned by the 1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary, Calvino left the Italian Communist Party. In his letter of resignation published in L'Unità on 7 August, he explained the reason of his dissent (the violent suppression of the Hungarian uprising and the revelation of Joseph Stalin's crimes) while confirming his "confidence in the democratic perspectives" of world Communism.[36] He withdrew from taking an active role in politics and never joined another party.[37] Ostracized by the PCI party leader Palmiro Togliatti and his supporters on publication of Becalmed in the Antilles (La gran bonaccia delle Antille), a satirical allegory of the party's immobilism, Calvino began writing The Baron in the Trees. Completed in three months and published in 1957, the fantasy is based on the "problem of the intellectual's political commitment at a time of shattered illusions".[38] He found new outlets for his periodic writings in the journals Città aperta and Tempo presente, the magazine Passato e presente, and the weekly Italia Domani. With Vittorini in 1959, he became co-editor of Il Menabò, a cultural journal devoted to literature in the modern industrial age, a position he held until 1966.[39]

Despite severe restrictions in the US against foreigners holding communist views, Calvino was allowed to visit the United States, where he stayed six months from 1959 to 1960 (four of which he spent in New York), after an invitation by the Ford Foundation. Calvino was particularly impressed by the "New World": "Naturally I visited the South and also California, but I always felt a New Yorker. My city is New York." The letters he wrote to Einaudi describing this visit to the United States were first published as "American Diary 1959–1960" in Hermit in Paris in 2003.

In 1962 Calvino met Argentinian translator Esther Judith Singer ("Chichita") and married her in 1964 in Havana, during a trip in which he visited his birthplace and was introduced to Ernesto "Che" Guevara. On 15 October 1967, a few days after Guevara's death, Calvino wrote a tribute to him that was published in Cuba in 1968, and in Italy thirty years later.[40] He and his wife settled in Rome in the via Monte Brianzo where their daughter, Giovanna, was born in 1965. Once again working for Einaudi, Calvino began publishing some of his "Cosmicomics" in Il Caffè, a literary magazine.

Later life and work

Vittorini's death in 1966 greatly affected Calvino. He went through what he called an "intellectual depression", which the writer himself described as an important passage in his life: "...I ceased to be young. Perhaps it's a metabolic process, something that comes with age, I'd been young for a long time, perhaps too long, suddenly I felt that I had to begin my old age, yes, old age, perhaps with the hope of prolonging it by beginning it early."

In the fermenting atmosphere that evolved into 1968's cultural revolution (the Claude Lévi-Strauss, all of whom influenced his later production.[41] That same year, he turned down the Viareggio Prize for Ti con zero (Time and the Hunter) on the grounds that it was an award given by "institutions emptied of meaning".[42] He accepted, however, both the Asti Prize and the Feltrinelli Prize for his writing in 1970 and 1972, respectively. In two autobiographical essays published in 1962 and 1970, Calvino described himself as "atheist" and his outlook as "non-religious".[43]

The catalogue of forms is endless: until every shape has found its city, new cities will continue to be born. When the forms exhaust their variety and come apart, the end of cities begins.

From Invisible Cities (1974)

Calvino had more intense contacts with the academic world, with notable experiences at the Sorbonne (with Barthes) and the University of Urbino. His interests included classical studies: Honoré de Balzac, Ludovico Ariosto, Dante, Ignacio de Loyola, Cervantes, Shakespeare, Cyrano de Bergerac, and Giacomo Leopardi. Between 1972–1973 Calvino published two short stories, "The Name, the Nose" and the Oulipo-inspired "The Burning of the Abominable House" in the Italian edition of Playboy. He became a regular contributor to the important Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera, spending his summer vacations in a house constructed in Roccamare near Castiglione della Pescaia, Tuscany.

In 1975 Calvino was made Honorary Member of the American Academy. Awarded the Austrian State Prize for European Literature in 1976, he visited Mexico, Japan, and the United States where he gave a series of lectures in several American towns. After his mother died in 1978 at the age of 92, Calvino sold Villa Meridiana, the family home in San Remo. Two years later, he moved to Rome in Piazza Campo Marzio near the Pantheon and began editing the work of Tommaso Landolfi for Rizzoli. Awarded the French Légion d'honneur in 1981, he also accepted to be jury president of the 29th Venice Film Festival.

During the summer of 1985, Calvino prepared a series of texts on literature for the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures to be delivered at Harvard University in the fall. On 6 September, he was admitted to the ancient hospital of Santa Maria della Scala in Siena, where he died during the night between 18 and 19 September of a cerebral hemorrhage. His lecture notes were published posthumously in Italian in 1988 and in English as Six Memos for the Next Millennium in 1993.

Authors he helped publish

Selected bibliography

A selected bibliography of Calvino's writings, listing the works that have been translated into and published in English, and a few major untranslated works. More exhaustive bibliographies can be found in Martin McLaughlin's Italo Calvino, and Beno Weiss's Understanding Italo Calvino.[44][45]

Fiction

Title Original
publication
English
translation
Translator
Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno
The Path to the Nest of Spiders
The Path to the Spiders' Nests
1947 1957
1998
Archibald Colquhoun
Martin McLaughlin
Il visconte dimezzato
The Cloven Viscount
1952 1962 Archibald Colquhoun
La formica argentina
The Argentine Ant
1952 1957 Archibald Colquhoun
Fiabe Italiane
Italian Fables
Italian Folk Tales
Italian Folktales
1956 1961
1975
1980
Louis Brigante
Sylvia Mulcahy
George Martin
Il barone rampante
The Baron in the Trees
1957 1959 Archibald Colquhoun
La speculazione edilizia
A Plunge into Real Estate
1957 1984 D. S. Carne-Ross
Il cavaliere inesistente
The Nonexistent Knight
1959 1962 Archibald Colquhoun
La giornata d'uno scrutatore
The Watcher
1963 1971 William Weaver
Marcovaldo ovvero le stagioni in città
Marcovaldo or the Seasons in the City
1963 1983 William Weaver
La nuvola di smog
Smog
1965 1971 William Weaver
Le cosmicomiche
Cosmicomics
1965 1968 William Weaver
Ti con zero
t zero (also published as Time and the Hunter)
1967 1969 William Weaver
Il castello dei destini incrociati
The Castle of Crossed Destinies
1969 1977 William Weaver
Gli amori difficili
Difficult Loves (also the title of 2 different collections)
1970 1984 William Weaver
Le città invisibili
Invisible Cities
1972 1974 William Weaver
Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore
If on a winter's night a traveler
1979 1981 William Weaver
Palomar
Mr. Palomar
1983 1985 William Weaver

Fiction collections

Title Original
publication
English
translation
Translator
Ultimo viene il corvo
The Crow Comes Last
1949
30 short stories: ? (some of these stories appear in Adam, One Afternoon, and other collections). 

Adam, One Afternoon and Other Stories
1957 Archibald Colquhoun, Peggy Wright
21 short stories: Adam, One Afternoon; The Enchanted Garden; Father to Son; A Goatherd at Luncheon; Leaving Again Shortly; The House of the Beehives; Fear on the Footpath; Hunger at Bévera; Going to Headquarters; The Crow Comes Last; One of the Three is Still Alive; Animal Wood; Theft in a Cake Shop; Dollars and the Demi-Mondaine; Sleeping Like Dogs; Desire in November; A Judgment; The Cat and the Policeman; Who Put the Mine in the Sea?; The Argentine Ant. 
I nostri antenati
Our Ancestors
1960 1962 Archibald Colquhoun
3 novels: The Cloven Viscount; The Baron in the Trees; The Nonexistent Knight

The Watcher and Other Stories
1971 Archibald Colquhoun, William Weaver
3 short stories: The Watcher; The Argentine Ant; Smog. 

Difficult Loves
1983 William Weaver, D. S. Carne-Ross
3 novellas: Difficult Loves; Smog; A Plunge into Real Estate

Difficult Loves
1984 William Weaver, Archibald Colquhoun, Peggy Wright
The novella, Difficult Loves, and 20 short stories: Adam, One Afternoon; The Enchanted Garden; A Goatherd at Luncheon; The House of the Beehives; Big Fish, Little Fish; A Ship Loaded with Crabs; Man in the Wasteland; Lazy Sons; Fear on the Footpath; Hunger at Bévera; Going to Headquarters; The Crow Comes Last; One of the Three Is Still Alive; Animal Woods; Mine Field; Theft in a Pastry Shop; Dollars and the Demimondaine; Sleeping like Dogs; Desire in November; Transit Bed. 
Sotto il sole giaguaro
Under the Jaguar Sun
1986 1988 William Weaver
3 short stories: Under the Jaguar Sun; A King Listens; The Name, The Nose. 
Prima che tu dica 'Pronto'
Numbers in the Dark and Other Stories
1993 1996 Tim Parks
37 short stories: The Man Who Shouted Teresa; The Flash; Making Do; Dry River; Conscience; Solidarity; The Black Sheep; Good for Nothing; Like a Flight of Ducks; Love Far from Home; Wind in a City; The Lost Regiment; Enemy Eyes; A General in the Library; The Workshop Hen; Numbers in the Dark; The Queen's Necklace; Becalmed in the Antilles; The Tribe with Its Eyes on the Sky; Nocturnal Soliloquy of a Scottish Nobleman; A Beautiful March Day; World Memory; Beheading the Heads; The Burning of the Abominable House; The Petrol Pump; Neanderthal Man; Montezuma; Before You Say 'Hello'; Glaciation; The Call of the Water; The Mirror, the Target; The Other Eurydice; The Memoirs of Casanova; Henry Ford; The Last Channel; Implosion; Nothing and Not Much. 
Tutte le cosmicomiche
The Complete Cosmicomics
1997 2009 Martin McLaughlin, Tim Parks, William Weaver
The collections Cosmicomics and t zero, 4 stories from Numbers in the Dark and Other Stories, and 7 stories newly translated by Martin McLaughlin. 

Essays and other writings

Title Original
publication
English
translation
Translator
Orlando Furioso di Ludovico Ariosto
1970
An interpretation of the epic poem, and selections. 
Autobiografia di uno spettatore
Autobiography of a Spectator
1974
Preface to Fellini's Quattro film
Introduction to Faits divers de la terre et du ciel by Silvina Ocampo
1974
With a preface by Jorge Luis Borges
Una pietra sopra: Discorsi di letteratura e società
The Uses of Literature (also published as The Literature Machine)
1980 1986 Patrick Creagh
Essays on literature. 
Racconti fantastici dell'ottocento
Fantastic Tales
1983 1997 ?
Anthology of classic supernatural stories. 
Science et métaphore chez Galilée
Science and Metaphor in Galileo Galilei
1983
Lectures given at the École des hautes études in Paris. 
The Written and the Unwritten Word[46] 1983 1983 William Weaver
Lecture at the New York Institute for the Humanities on 30 March 1983 
Collezione di sabbia
Collection of Sand
1984
Journalistic essays from 1974–1984 
Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio
Six Memos for the Next Millennium
1988 1993 Patrick Creagh
Originally prepared for the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures. On the values of literature. 
Sulla fiaba
1988
Essays on fables. 
I libri degli altri. Lettere 1947–1981
1991
Letters that Calvino wrote to other authors, whilst he worked at Einaudi. 
Perché leggere i classici
Why Read the Classics?
1991 1993 Martin McLaughlin
Essays on classic literature. 

Autobiographical works

Title Original
publication
English
translation
Translator
L'entrata in guerra
Into the War
1954 2011 Martin McLaughlin
La strada di San Giovanni
The Road to San Giovanni
1990 1993 Tim Parks
Eremita a Parigi. Pagine autobiografiche
Hermit in Paris
1994 2003 Martin McLaughlin
Album Calvino
1995

Libretti

Title Original
performance
La panchina. Opera in un atto
The Bench: One-Act Opera
1956
Libretto for the opera by Sergio Liberovici
La vera storia 1982
Libretto for the opera by Luciano Berio
Un re in ascolto
A King Listens
1984
Libretto for the opera by Luciano Berio, based on Calvino's 1977 short story "A King Listens".[47] 

Translations

Original Title
Translated title
Original Author Original
publication
Translated
publication
Les fleurs bleues
I fiori blu
Raymond Queneau 1965 1967
Le chant du Styrène
La canzone del polistirene
Raymond Queneau 1958 1985

Selected filmography

  • Boccaccio '70, 1962 (co-wrote screenplay of Renzo e Luciano segment directed by Mario Monicelli)
  • L'Amore difficile, 1963 (wrote L'avventura di un soldato segment directed by Nino Manfredi)
  • Tiko and the Shark, 1964 (co-wrote screenplay directed by Folco Quilici)

Film and television adaptations

  • The Nonexistent Knight by Pino Zac, 1969 (Italian animated film based on the novel)
  • Amores dificiles by Ana Luisa Ligouri, 1983 (13' Mexican short)
  • L'Aventure d'une baigneuse by Philippe Donzelot, 1991 (14' French short based on The Adventure of a Bather in Difficult Loves )
  • Fantaghirò by Lamberto Bava, 1991 (TV adaptation based on Fanta-Ghirò the Beautiful in Italian Folktales)
  • Solidarity by Nancy Kiang, 2006 (10' American short)
  • Conscience by Yu-Hsiu Camille Chen, 2009 (10' Australian short)
  • "La Luna" by Enrico Casarosa, 2011 (American short)[48]

Films on Calvino

Legacy

The Scuola Italiana Italo Calvino, an Italian curriculum school in Moscow, Russia, is named after him.

Awards

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Mi chiamo Italo Calvino" on YouTube. RAI (circa 1970), retrieved 25 October 2012.
  2. ^ McLaughlin, Italo Calvino, xii.
  3. ^ Calvino, 'Objective Biographical Notice', Hermit in Paris, 160.
  4. ^ a b Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 132.
  5. ^ Paola Govoni, The Making of Italo Calvino: Women and Men in the ‘Two Cultures’ Home Laboratory, in Writing about Lives in Science: (Auto)Biography, Gender, and Genre, edited by P. Govoni and Z.A. Franceschi, Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht/V&R Unipress, 2014, pp. 187-221, see at https://www.academia.edu/7940709/The_Making_of_Italo_Calvino_Women_and_Men_in_the_Two_Cultures_Home_Laboratory last retrieved Sept. 3, 2014
  6. ^ Calvino, "Political Autobiography of a Young Man", Hermit in Paris, 132.
  7. ^ Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 135.
  8. ^ Corti, Autografo 2 (October 1985): 51.
  9. ^ Weiss, Understanding Italo Calvino, 2.
  10. ^ Calvino, The Road to San Giovanni, 10.
  11. ^ a b Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 130.
  12. ^ McLaughlin, xii. Calvino defined his family's traditions as "a humanitarian Socialism, and before that Mazzinianism". Cf. Calvino, 'Behind the Success' in Hermit in Paris, 223.
  13. ^ Weiss, Understanding Italo Calvino, 3.
  14. ^ Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 134.
  15. ^ Calvino, "Political Autobiography of a Young Man", Hermit in Paris, 134.
  16. ^ Calvino, 'The Duce's Portraits', Hermit in Paris, 210.
  17. ^ Weiss, Understanding Italo Calvino, 3.
  18. ^ Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 140.
  19. ^ a b Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 138.
  20. ^ Calvino recalled this sudden, forced transformation of a dreamy adolescent into a partisan soldier as one bounded by logic since "the logic of the Resistance was the very logic of our urge towards life". Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 146.
  21. ^ a b Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 142.
  22. ^ The decision was influenced by the firmly anti-Fascist stance of Turin during Mussolini's years in power. Cf. Calvino, 'Behind the Success' in Hermit in Paris, 225.
  23. ^ Il Politecnico was founded by Elio Vittorini, a novelist and the leading leftist intellectual of postwar Italy, who saw it as a means to restore Italy's diminished standing within the European cultural mainstream. Cf. Weiss, Understanding Italo Calvino, 3.
  24. ^ Calvino, 'Political Autobiography of a Young Man', Hermit in Paris, 143.
  25. ^ Calvino, 'Behind the Success' in Hermit in Paris, 224.
  26. ^ Critic Martin McLaughlin points out that the novel failed to win the more prestigious Premio Mondadori. McLaughlin, xiii.
  27. ^ Pavese's review first published in l'Unità on 26 September 1947. Quoted in Weiss, Understanding Italo Calvino, 39.
  28. ^ Weiss, Understanding Italo Calvino, 4.
  29. ^ Of the three manuscripts, only Youth in Turin was published in the review Officina in 1957.
  30. ^ Calvino, 'Introduction by the author', Our Ancestors, vii.
  31. ^ Calvino, 'Introduction by the author', Our Ancestors, x.
  32. ^ Calvino, 'Objective Biographical Notice', Hermit in Paris, 163.
  33. ^ Calvino, 'Objective Biographical Notice', Hermit in Paris, 164.
  34. ^ Calvino, 'Introduction', Italian Folktales, xxvii.
  35. ^ Italian novelist's love letters turn political, International Herald Tribune, 20 August 2004
  36. ^ Cf. Barenghi and Bruno, "Cronologia" in Romanzi e racconti di Italo Calvino, LXXIV; and Calvino, "The Summer of '56" in Hermit in Paris, 200
  37. ^ "For some years now I have stopped being a member of the Communist party, and I have not joined any other party." "Political Autobiography of a Young Man" in Hermit in Paris, 154
  38. ^ Calvino, "Introduction" in Our Ancestors, x
  39. ^ McLaughlin, Italo Calvino, 51
  40. ^ The Words that Failed Me: Calvino on Che Guevara
  41. ^ McLaughlin, Italo Calvino, xv.
  42. ^ Barenghi and Falcetto, 'Cronologia' in Romanzi e racconti di Italo Calvino, LXXVII
  43. ^ Cf. "Political Autobiography of a Young Man" and "Objective Biographical Notice" in Hermit in Paris, 133, 162
  44. ^ McLaughlin, Italo Calvino, 174–184
  45. ^ Weiss, Understanding Italo Calvino, 217–226
  46. ^ The Written and the Unwritten Word by Italo Calvino, translated by William Weaver. 12 May 1983
  47. ^ Weiss, Understanding Italo Calvino, 196
  48. ^ http://www.awn.com/articles/article/first-look-pixars-la-luna/page/1%2C1
  49. ^ Cited in IRS-RSI News. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
  50. ^ (French) Dans la peau d'Italo Calvino with Neri Marcorè and Pietro Citati on ARTE France. Retrieved 12 February 2014.

Print

Primary sources
  • Calvino, Italo. Adam, One Afternoon (trans. Archibald Colquhoun, Peggy Wright). London: Minerva, 1992.
  • —. The Castle of Crossed Destinies (trans. William Weaver). London: Secker & Warburg, 1977
  • —. Cosmicomics (trans. William Weaver). London: Picador, 1993.
  • —. The Crow Comes Last (Ultimo viene il corvo). Turin: Einaudi, 1949.
  • —. Difficult Loves. Smog. A Plunge into Real Estate (trans. William Weaver, Donald Selwyn Carne-Ross). London: Picador, 1985.
  • —. Hermit in Paris (trans. Martin McLaughlin). London: Jonathan Cape, 2003.
  • —. If on a winter's night a traveller (trans. William Weaver). London: Vintage, 1998. ISBN 0-919630-23-5
  • —. Invisible Cities (trans. William Weaver). London: Secker & Warburg, 1974.
  • —. Italian Fables (trans. Louis Brigante). New York: Collier, 1961. (50 tales)
  • —. Italian Folk Tales (trans. Sylvia Mulcahy). London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1975. (24 tales)
  • —. Italian Folktales (trans. George Martin). Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980. (complete 200 tales)
  • —. Marcovaldo or the Seasons in the City (trans. William Weaver). London: Minerva, 1993.
  • —. Mr. Palomar (trans. William Weaver). London: Vintage, 1999.
  • —. Our Ancestors (trans. A. Colquhoun). London: Vintage, 1998.
  • —. The Path to the Nest of Spiders (trans. Archibald Colquhoun). Boston: Beacon, 1957.
  • —. The Path to the Spiders' Nests (trans. A. Colquhoun, revised by Martin McLaughlin). London: Jonathan Cape, 1993.
  • —. t zero (trans. William Weaver). New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969.
  • —. The Road to San Giovanni (trans. Tim Parks). New York: Vintage International, 1993.
  • —. Six Memos for the Next Millennium (trans. Patrick Creagh). New York: Vintage International, 1993.
  • —. The Watcher and Other Stories (trans. William Weaver). New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1971.
Secondary sources
  • Barenghi, Mario, and Bruno Falcetto. Romanzi e racconti di Italo Calvino. Milano: Mondadori, 1991.
  • Bernardini Napoletano, Francesca. I segni nuovi di Italo Calvino. Rome: Bulzoni, 1977.
  • Bonura, Giuseppe. Invito alla lettura di Calvino. Milan: U. Mursia, 1972.
  • Calvino, Italo. Uno scrittore pomeridiano: Intervista sull'arte della narrativa a cura di William Weaver e Damian Pettigrew con un ricordo di Pietro Citati. Rome: minimum fax, 2003. ISBN 978-88-87765-86-1.
  • Corti, Maria. 'Intervista: Italo Calvino' in Autografo 2 (October 1985): 47–53.
  • Di Carlo, Franco. Come leggere I nostri antenati. Milan: U. Mursia, 1958. (1998 ISBN 978-88-425-2215-7).
  • McLaughlin, Martin. Italo Calvino. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-7486-0735-8 (pb. ISBN 978-0-7486-0917-8).
  • Weiss, Beno. Understanding Italo Calvino. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-87249-858-7.

Online

  • Italo Calvino at Emory University Online Resources and Links
  • Outside the Town of Malbork A Site for Italo Calvino
  • The Words that Failed Calvino on Che Guevara

Further reading

General

  • Benussi, Cristina (1989). Introduzione a Calvino. Rome: Laterza.
  • Bartoloni, Paolo (2003). Interstitial Writing: Calvino, Caproni, Sereni and Svevo. Leicester: Troubador.
  • Bloom, Harold (ed.)(2002). Bloom's Major Short Story Writers: Italo Calvino. Broomall, Pennsylvania: Chelsea House.
  • Cannon, JoAnn (1981). Italo Calvino: Writer and Critic. Ravenna: Longo Press.
  • Carter III, Albert Howard (1987). Italo Calvino: Metamorphoses of Fantasy. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press.
  • Chubb, Stephen (1997). I, Writer, I, Reader: the Concept of the Self in the Fiction of Italo Calvino. Leicester: Troubador.
  • Gabriele, Tomassina (1994). Italo Calvino: Eros and Language. Teaneck, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
  • Jeannet, Angela M. (2000) Under the Radiant Sun and the Crescent Moon. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Markey, Constance (1999). Italo Calvino. A Journey Toward Postmodernism. Gainesville: Florida University Press.
  • —. Interview. "Italo Calvino: The Contemporary Fabulist" in Italian Quarterly, 23 (spring 1982): 77–85.
  • Pilz, Kerstin (2005). Mapping Complexity: Literature and Science in the Works of Italo Calvino. Leicester: Troubador.
  • Ricci, Franco (1990). Difficult Games: A Reading of 'I racconti' by Italo Calvino. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
  • – (2001). Painting with Words, Writing with Pictures. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-3507-8

External links

Excerpts, essays, artwork
  • The Distance of the Moon read by Liev Schreiber in 2013
  • If on a winter's night a traveler First chapter excerpts
  • How Much Shall We Bet? at the Wayback Machine (archived September 6, 2005) Chapter 8 of Cosmicomics
  • Calvino on Myth
  • Calvino on Che Guevara
  • In Calvino veritas Essays on Calvino

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