World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Model sheet

Article Id: WHEBN0001163829
Reproduction Date:

Title: Model sheet  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Animation, Motosuke Takahashi, 3D computer graphics, Computer animation, Kazuto Nakazawa
Collection: Animation Technology, Animation Terminology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Model sheet

Artwork from the Open Movie Workshop 'Chaos&Evolutions'. A DVD training about digital painting, concept art, Gimp-painter 2.6 and Mypaint 0.7 .

In animation, a model sheet, also known as a character board, character sheet, character study or simply a study, is a document used to help standardize the appearance, poses, and gestures of an animated character. Model sheets are required when large numbers of artists are involved in the production of an animated film to help maintain continuity in characters from scene to scene, as one animator may only do one shot out of the several hundred that are required to complete an animated feature film. When drawn without such background, the character is referred to as off-model.


  • Model Sheets in 3D modelling 1
  • Purposes 2
  • Specific annotations 3
  • Examples 4
  • Copyright and fair use 5
  • References 6

Model Sheets in 3D modelling

Model sheets are also used for references in 3D modelling. It usually is used as reference material so as to allow proper proportions in 3D modelling


Model sheets have also been used in the past to maintain graphic continuity over the years for long lasting cartoon productions of short or short features such as the Looney Tunes or Merrie Melodies series.

Model sheets are drawings of posed cartoon or comic strip characters that are created to provide a reference template for several artists who collaborate in the production of a lengthy or multiple-edition work of art such as a comic book, animated film or television series. Model sheets usually depict the character’s head and body as they appear at various angles (a process known as "model rotation"), includes sketches of the character’s hands and feet, and shows several basic facial expressions.

Model sheets ensure that, despite the efforts of several or many artists, their work exhibits unity, as if one artist created the drawings (that is, they are "on model"). They show the character's structure, proportions, attire, and body language. Often, several sheets are required to depict a character’s subtler emotional and physical attitudes.

Depending on the whim of animation direction, deviations from the model may be permitted in the course of final animation; this "tightness" of model is a major distinguishing factor in overall animation style, as it constitutes a tradeoff between expressiveness and smoothness/consistency. As such, the usage of models varies widely between studios and projects.

Model sheets can also be used in the construction of costumes or sculpted figurines.

Specific annotations

Model sheets also provide notes that present specific information about how to develop particular features of the character, such as his or her head shape, hair length and style, size and position of the eyes and the mouth.


Some model sheets are specific to particular completed or ongoing projects, whereas others are more general and inclusive of a studio’s entire collection of characters. Animation studios besides Disney and fans also post model sheets on their Internet Web sites. Larry’s Toon Institute provides a generic model sheet for the purpose of introducing the concept of model sheets.[1]

Copyright and fair use

Model sheets are not typically in the public domain, but are copyrighted material owned by the animation studio which created it. There used to be a lot of model sheets on the internet, however many studios demanded that they be taken down.

Although model sheets originally are intended for artists who work for the studios that own the characters for which these templates are developed, other artists, such as those who create fan art, profit from them by adapting their characters to their own uses. In addition, parents often download and print model sheets as free coloring books for their children.


  1. ^
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.