World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Natural horn

Article Id: WHEBN0000692866
Reproduction Date:

Title: Natural horn  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Modern didgeridoo designs, Alphorn, Military band, Wind instrument, French horn
Collection: Brass Instruments, Natural Horns
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Natural horn

Natural horn
Natural horn in the V&A Museum, London
Classification Brass instrument
Franz Schubert - Octet - 1. Adagio - Allegro

Problems playing this file? See .

The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves. It consists of a mouthpiece, some long coiled tubing, and a large flared bell. Pitch changes are made through a few techniques:

  • Modulating the lip tension as done with modern brass instruments. This allows for notes in the harmonic series to be played.
  • Changing the length of the instrument by switching the crooks. This is a rather slow process. Before the advent of the modern valved horn many ideas were attempted to speed up the process of changing the key of the instrument.
  • Changing the position of the hand in the bell; this is called hand-stopping.

This instrument was used extensively until the emergence of the valved horn in the early 19th century.

Contents

  • Handhorn technique 1
  • Repertoire 2
  • Natural horn and the modern horn 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Handhorn technique

The natural horn has several gaps in its harmonic range. To play chromatically, in addition to crooking the instrument into the right key, two additional techniques are required: bending and hand-stopping. Bending a note is achieved by modifying the embouchure to raise or lower the pitch fractionally, and compensates for the slightly out of pitch "wolf tones" which all brass instruments have. Hand-stopping is a technique whereby the player can modify the pitch of a note by up to a semitone (or sometimes slightly more) by inserting a cupped hand into the bell. Both change the timbre as well as the pitch.

Repertoire

"Cor Solo" (natural horn) - Raoux, Paris, 1797

The Telemann, Weber and many others.

The chromatic abilities of recently developed brass instruments, however, opened new possibilities for composers of the Romantic era, and fit with the artistic currents of the time. By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, almost all music was written for the modern valved horn.

However, the natural horn still found its way into the works of some composers. Brahms did not care for the valved horn and wrote for natural horn.[1] Benjamin Britten's Serenade for Tenor, Horn and Strings, though written for the modern horn, makes notable use of the F harmonic series and has been recorded at least once on a natural horn.

György Ligeti's Hamburg Concerto makes a great use of the natural horn and of natural sounds on the modern horn in the solo part and requires four natural horns in the orchestra.

Natural horn and the modern horn

Below lists natural horn keys with their corresponding fingering on the modern horn. If a piece of music says the key on the left you can press the key combination on the right on the modern double horn to get the correct tube length. This is useful for simulating natural horn when playing older compositions.

  • B alto – T0
  • A – T2
  • A – T1
  • G – T12
  • G/F – T23
  • F – open
  • E – 2
  • E – 1
  • D – 12
  • D – 23
  • C – 13
  • B basso – 123 (generally very sharp; pull tuning slide and/or valve slides out somewhat)
  • B basso – not possible on F horn, unless you pull all the valve slides and tuning slide out as far as they will go (without detaching) and then use the 123 fingering. Even then, the intonation may still be sharp, and a greater degree of hand in the horn can be needed.

References

  1. ^ Moore, K. C. "The persistence of the natural horn in the romantic period". Retrieved 2008-07-20. 

External links

  • The Cyber Horn Museum
  • Ericson, John. The Natural Horn.
  • Seraphinoff, Richard. Natural Horns.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.