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Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

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Title: Near-close near-front unrounded vowel  
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Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
IPA number 319
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
Kirshenbaum I
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Near-close front unrounded vowel

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɪ, i.e. a small capital letter i.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for classifying vowels. Some linguists use the terms "high" and "low," respectively, instead of "close" and "open."


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4


IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •


In the following transcriptions, a fully front vowel is represented by the "advanced" diacritic [ɪ̟].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic sitwa [sɪtwɐ] 'winter' Used mostly in the Tyari dialects. [ə] is used predominantly in other dialects.
Chinese Yue /bing1 [pɪŋ˥] 'ice' See Cantonese phonology
Wu /ih [iɪʔ˥] 'one'
Czech byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[1][2][3][4][5][6] hel [ˈhɪ̟ːˀl] 'whole' Fully front.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Most often, it is transcribed e(ː) - the way it is pronounced in the conservative variety.[7] See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[8] blik [blɪ̟k] 'plate' Somewhat fronted.[8] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
Rotterdam[9] bit [bɪ̟t] 'bit' Somewhat fronted;[9] corresponds to [ɘ̟] in standard Dutch.[10][11] See Dutch phonology
The Hague[9]
English Most dialects bit     'bit' See English phonology
Australian[12] [bɪ̟t] Fully front and somewhat raised, tenser than in most other dialects. See Australian English phonology
New Zealand bed [bɪd] 'bed' Some speakers. For others it's more open [e], or even [ɛ], in case of South African English.
South African
French Quebec petite [pət͡sɪt] 'small' Allophone of /i/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Southern Bernese [ˈɣ̊lɪːd̥] 'cloth' Corresponds to [ɛi̯] in the city of Bern. See Bernese German phonology
Standard[13][14] bitte     'please' May be somewhat lowered.[13] See German phonology
Hindustani कि     'that' (subject/object of a relative clause) See Hindustani phonology
Irish duine [dˠɪnʲə] 'person' See Irish phonology
Kaingang[15] [ɸɪˈɾi] 'rattlesnake' Atonic allophone of /i/ and /e/.[16]
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[17] mìs [mɪs] 'wrong'
Weert dialect[18] zeen [zɪːn] 'to be' Allophone of /eə/ before nasals.[18]
Lithuanian viltis [vʲɪlʲˈtʲɪs] 'hope'
Luxembourgish[19] Been [bɪ̟ːn] 'leg' Fully front. May be transcribed /eː/.
Mongolian[20] ? [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Norwegian litt [lɪt] 'a little' May be fully front. See Norwegian phonology
Plautdietsch winta [ˈvɪntə] 'winter'
Portuguese Brazilian[21] Filipe [fɪˈlipɪ̥] 'Filipe' Corresponds to [i ~ ] in Brazil, and /ɨ/ and unstressed /i/ in other national variants. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਨਿੰਬੂ [nɪmbu] 'lemon'
Romanian Banat dialect[22] râu [rɪw] 'river' Corresponds to [ɨ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[23] дерево     'tree' Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic thig [hɪk] 'come' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Shiwiar[24] Allophone of /i/.[24]
Sicilian arrìriri [aˈrɪɾiɾi] 'smile'
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[25] mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Fully front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[26] sill     'herring' Fully front and lowered, more like [e̝]. See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian[27] ходити [xoˈdɪtɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[28] być [bɪt͡ʃ] 'to be' Allophone of /i/ after hard consonants.[28] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Vietnamese ch [cɪj˧ˀ˨] 'elder sister' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian Hindelopers beast [bɪːst] 'animal'

Icelandic i is often transcribed as /ɪ/, but it is actually close-mid [e].[29][30][31]


  1. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  2. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:268)
  3. ^ a b Grønnum (2003)
  4. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:45)
  5. ^ a b Uldall (1933), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:289)
  6. ^ a b "John Wells's phonetic blog: Danish". 5 November 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 
  7. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  8. ^ a b Peters (2010:241)
  9. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:131)
  10. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  12. ^ Robert Mannell and Felicity Cox (2009-08-01). "Australian English Monophthongs". Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  13. ^ a b Kohler (1999:87)
  14. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  15. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  16. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  17. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  18. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  19. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  20. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  21. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  22. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  23. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:37)
  24. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  25. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  26. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  27. ^ Сучасна українська мова: Підручник / О.Д. Пономарів, В.В.Різун, Л.Ю.Шевченко та ін.; За ред. О.Д.пономарева. — 2-ге вид., перероб. —К.: Либідь, 2001. — с. 14
  28. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 34.
  29. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  30. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  31. ^ Haugen (1958:65)


  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press,  
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232,  
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF),  
  • Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press,  
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140,  
  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47,  
  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 12: 71–90.  
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,  
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71,  
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89,  
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden,  
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 117–124,  
  • Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 239–246,  
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245,  
  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), Dialectología española (2nd ed.), Biblioteca Romanica Hispanica, Editorial Gredos 
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