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Template:Earthquakes The Richter magnitude scale (often shortened to Richter scale) was developed to assign a single number to quantify the energy released during an earthquake.
The scale is a base-10 logarithmic scale. The magnitude is defined as the logarithm of the ratio of the amplitude of waves measured by a seismograph to an arbitrary small amplitude. An earthquake that measures 5.0 on the Richter scale has a shaking amplitude 10 times larger than one that measures 4.0, and corresponds to a 31.6 times larger release of energy.^{[1]}
Since the mid-20th century, the use of the Richter magnitude scale has largely been supplanted by the moment magnitude scale (MMS) in many countries. However, the Richter scale is still widely used in Russia and other CIS countries. Earthquake measurements under the moment magnitude scale in the United States—3.5 and up, on the MMS scale—are still usually erroneously referred to as being quoted on the Richter scale by the general public, as well as the media, due to their familiarity with the Richter scale as opposed to the MMS.
Developed in 1935 by Charles Francis Richter in partnership with Beno Gutenberg, both from the California Institute of Technology, the scale was firstly intended to be used only in a particular study area in California, and on seismograms recorded on a particular instrument, the Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph. Richter originally reported values to the nearest quarter of a unit, but values were later reported with one decimal place. His motivation for creating the local magnitude scale was to compare the size of different earthquakes.^{[1]} Richter, who since childhood had aspirations in astronomy, drew inspiration from the apparent magnitude scale used to account for the brightness of stars lost due to distance.^{[2]} Richter arbitrarily chose a magnitude 0 event to be an earthquake that would show a maximum combined horizontal displacement of 1 µm (0.00004 in) on a seismogram recorded using a Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph 100 km (62 mi) from the earthquake epicenter. This choice was intended to prevent negative magnitudes from being assigned. The smallest earthquakes that could be recorded and located at the time were around magnitude 3. However, the Richter scale has no lower limit, and sensitive modern seismographs now routinely record quakes with negative magnitudes.
M_{L} (local magnitude) was not designed to be applied to data with distances to the hypocenter of the earthquake greater than 600 km^{[3]} (373 mi). For national and local seismological observatories the standard magnitude scale is today still M_{L}. Unfortunately this scale saturates at around M_{L} = 7,^{[4]} because the high frequency waves recorded locally have wavelengths shorter than the rupture lengths of large earthquakes.
To express the size of earthquakes around the globe, Gutenberg and Richter later developed a magnitude scale based on surface waves, surface wave magnitude M_{s}; and another based on body waves, body wave magnitude m_{b}.^{[5]} These are types of waves that are recorded at teleseismic distances. The two scales were adjusted such that they were consistent with the M_{L} scale. This succeeded better with the M_{s} scale than with the m_{b} scale. Both of these scales saturate when the earthquake is bigger than magnitude 8 and therefore the moment magnitude scale, M_{w}, was invented.^{[6]}
These older magnitude scales have been superseded by methods for estimating the seismic moment, creating the moment magnitude scale, although the older scales are still widely used because they can be calculated quickly.
I found a paper by Professor Charles Richter Interview
The Richter scale proper was defined in 1935 for particular circumstances and instruments; the instrument used saturated for strong earthquakes. The scale was replaced by the moment magnitude scale (MMS); for earthquakes adequately measured by the Richter scale, numerical values are approximately the same. Although values measured for earthquakes now are actually $M\_w$ (MMS), they are frequently reported as Richter values, even for earthquakes of magnitude over 8, where the Richter scale becomes meaningless. Anything above 5 is classified as a risk by the USGS.
The Richter and MMS scales measure the energy released by an earthquake; another scale, the Mercalli intensity scale, classifies earthquakes by their effects, from detectable by instruments but not noticeable to catastrophic. The energy and effects are not necessarily strongly correlated; a shallow earthquake in a populated area with soil of certain types can be far more intense than a much more energetic deep earthquake in an isolated area.
There are several scales which have historically been described as the "Richter scale," especially the local magnitude $M\_L$ and the surface wave $M\_s$ scale. In addition, the body wave magnitude, $m\_b$, and the moment magnitude, $M\_w$, abbreviated MMS, have been widely used for decades, and a couple of new techniques to measure magnitude are in the development stage.
All magnitude scales have been designed to give numerically similar results. This goal has been achieved well for $M\_L$, $M\_s$, and $M\_w$.^{[7]}^{[8]} The $m\_b$ scale gives somewhat different values than the other scales. The reason for so many different ways to measure the same thing is that at different distances, for different hypocentral depths, and for different earthquake sizes, the amplitudes of different types of elastic waves must be measured.
$M\_L$ is the scale used for the majority of earthquakes reported (tens of thousands) by local and regional seismological observatories. For large earthquakes worldwide, the moment magnitude scale is most common, although $M\_s$ is also reported frequently.
The seismic moment, $M\_o$, is proportional to the area of the rupture times the average slip that took place in the earthquake, thus it measures the physical size of the event. $M\_w$ is derived from it empirically as a quantity without units, just a number designed to conform to the $M\_s$ scale.^{[9]} A spectral analysis is required to obtain $M\_o$, whereas the other magnitudes are derived from a simple measurement of the amplitude of a specifically defined wave.
All scales, except $M\_w$, saturate for large earthquakes, meaning they are based on the amplitudes of waves which have a wavelength shorter than the rupture length of the earthquakes. These short waves (high frequency waves) are too short a yardstick to measure the extent of the event. The resulting effective upper limit of measurement for $M\_L$ is about 7^{[4]} and about 8.5^{[4]} for $M\_s$.^{[10]}
New techniques to avoid the saturation problem and to measure magnitudes rapidly for very large earthquakes are being developed. One of these is based on the long period P-wave,^{[11]} the other is based on a recently discovered channel wave.^{[12]}
The energy release of an earthquake,^{[13]} which closely correlates to its destructive power, scales with the ^{3}⁄_{2} power of the shaking amplitude. Thus, a difference in magnitude of 1.0 is equivalent to a factor of 31.6 ($=(\{10^\{1.0\}\})^\{(3/2)\}$) in the energy released; a difference in magnitude of 2.0 is equivalent to a factor of 1000 ($=(\{10^\{2.0\}\})^\{(3/2)\}$ ) in the energy released.^{[14]} The elastic energy radiated is best derived from an integration of the radiated spectrum, but one can base an estimate on $m\_b$ because most energy is carried by the high frequency waves.
The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs (adjustments are included to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquake). The original formula is:^{[15]}
where A is the maximum excursion of the Wood-Anderson seismograph, the empirical function A_{0} depends only on the epicentral distance of the station, $\backslash delta$. In practice, readings from all observing stations are averaged after adjustment with station-specific corrections to obtain the M_{L} value.
Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; in terms of energy, each whole number increase corresponds to an increase of about 31.6 times the amount of energy released, and each increase of 0.2 corresponds to a doubling of the energy released.
Events with magnitudes greater than 4.5 are strong enough to be recorded by a seismograph anywhere in the world, so long as its sensors are not located in the earthquake's shadow.
The following describes the typical effects of earthquakes of various magnitudes near the epicenter. The values are typical only and should be taken with extreme caution, since intensity and thus ground effects depend not only on the magnitude, but also on the distance to the epicenter, the depth of the earthquake's focus beneath the epicenter, the location of the epicenter and geological conditions (certain terrains can amplify seismic signals).
(Based on U.S. Geological Survey documents.)^{[18]}
The intensity and death toll depend on several factors (earthquake depth, epicenter location, population density, to name a few) and can vary widely.
Minor earthquakes occur every day and hour. On the other hand, great earthquakes occur once a year, on average. The largest recorded earthquake was the Great Chilean Earthquake of May 22, 1960, which had a magnitude of 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale.^{[19]} The larger the magnitude, the less frequent the earthquake happens.
The following table lists the approximate energy equivalents in terms of TNT explosive force – though note that the earthquake energy is released underground rather than overground.^{[20]} Most energy from an earthquake is not transmitted to and through the surface; instead, it dissipates into the crust and other subsurface structures. In contrast, a small atomic bomb blast (see nuclear weapon yield) will not simply cause light shaking of indoor items, since its energy is released above ground.
31.6227 to the power of 0 equals 1, 31.6227 to the power of 1 equals 31.6227 and 31.6227 to the power of 2 equals 1000. Therefore, an 8.0 on the Richter scale releases 31.6227 times more energy than a 7.0 and a 9.0 on the Richter scale releases 1000 times more energy than a 7.0. Thus, $E\; \backslash approx\; 6.3\backslash times\; 10^4\backslash times\; 10^\{3M/2\}\backslash ,$
Dallas, Texas earthquake, September 30, 2012
St. Patrick's Day earthquake, Auckland, New Zealand, 2013 ^{[22]}^{[23]}
Eastern Kentucky earthquake, November 2012
$M\_W$ Ontario-Quebec earthquake (Canada), 2010^{[24]}^{[25]}
$M\_W$ Alum Rock earthquake (California), 2007 $M\_W$ Chino Hills earthquake (Southern California), 2008
Oklahoma, 2011 Pernik, Bulgaria, 2012
Approximate magnitude of Virginia/Washington, D.C./East Coast earthquake, 2011 Approximate yield of the Little Boy Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima (~16 kt)
Jericho earthquake (British Palestine), 1927 Christchurch earthquake (New Zealand), 2011
Vancouver earthquake (Canada), 2011
Irpinia earthquake (Italy), 1980 $M\_W$ Eureka earthquake (California, USA), 2010 Zumpango del Rio earthquake (Guerrero, Mexico), 2011^{[26]}
$M\_W$ Great Hanshin earthquake (Kobe, Japan), 1995 Gisborne earthquake (Gisborne, NZ), 2007
$M\_W$ Pichilemu earthquake (Chile), 2010 $M\_W$ Sikkim earthquake (Nepal-India Border), 2011
$M\_W$ Haiti earthquake, 2010
$M\_W$ San Juan earthquake (Argentina), 1944 $M\_W$ Canterbury earthquake (New Zealand), 2010
$M\_W$ 1980 Azores Islands Earthquake $M\_W$ Baja California earthquake (Mexico), 2010
$M\_W$ Antofagasta earthquake (Chile), 2007
$M\_W$ Oaxaca earthquake (Mexico), 2012 $M\_W$ Gujarat earthquake (India), 2001 $M\_W$ İzmit earthquake (Turkey), 1999 $M\_W$ Jiji earthquake (Taiwan), 1999
$M\_W$ Haida Gwaii earthquake (Canada), 2012
$M\_S$ Hawke's Bay earthquake (New Zealand), 1931 $M\_S$ Luzon earthquake (Philippines), 1990
$M\_W$ Great Kanto earthquake (Japan), 1923
San Juan earthquake (Argentina), 1894 San Francisco earthquake (California, USA), 1906 $M\_S$ Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake (B.C., Canada), 1949 $M\_W$ Chincha Alta earthquake (Peru), 2007 $M\_S$ Sichuan earthquake (China), 2008Kangra earthquake, 1905
Guam earthquake, August 8, 1993^{[27]}
These formulae are an alternative method to calculate Richter magnitude instead of using Richter correlation tables based on Richter standard seismic event ($M\_\backslash mathrm\{L\}$=0, A=0.001mm, D=100 km).
The Lillie empirical formula:
Where:
For distance less than 200 km:
For distance between 200 km and 600 km:
where A is seismograph signal amplitude in mm, D distance in km.
The Bisztricsany (1958) empirical formula for epicentral distances between 4˚ to 160˚:
The Tsumura empirical formula:
The Tsuboi, University of Tokio, empirical formula:
Angra do Heroísmo, São Miguel Island, Portugal, Santa Maria Island, Madeira
2015, Dominican Republic, 2007, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Haiti
Computer science, Natural logarithm, E (mathematical constant), Pi, Mathematics
Rhode Island, Wisconsin, Argentina, Ronald Reagan, 2012
1913, Philippines, Israel, Bill Clinton, 1899