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Toxicology testing

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Title: Toxicology testing  
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Toxicology testing

Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, or toxicity testing, is conducted to determine the degree to which a substance can damage a living or non-living organisms. It is often conducted by researchers using standard test procedures to comply with governing regulations. Some toxicology testing is chemical testing while some others use animals in the laboratory studies. Contract animal testing facilities such as Huntingdon Life Sciences and Inveresk Research International conduct a variety of tests on behalf of customers, including the manufacturer of medicines and household products.[1]

Contents

  • History 1
    • Europe 1.1
  • Methodology 2
  • Contract research organizations 3
  • Regulation 4
    • United States 4.1
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

History

Europe

Around one million animals, primate and non–primate, are used every year in Europe in toxicology tests.[2] In the UK, one-fifth of animal experiments are toxicology tests.[3]

Methodology

Toxicity tests examine finished products such as pesticides, medications, food additives such as artificial sweeteners, packing materials, and air freshener, or their chemical ingredients. The substances are applied to the skin or eyes; injected intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously; inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals and restraining them, or by placing them in an inhalation chamber; or administered orally, through a tube into the stomach, or placing them in the animals' food. Doses may be given once, repeated regularly for many months, or for the lifespan of the animal. Toxicity tests can also be conducted on materials need to be disposed such as sediment to be disposed in marine environment.

Contract research organizations

A contract research organization (CRO) is an organization that provides support to the NIH, EMEA, etc.).[4]

Regulation

United States

In the United States, toxicology tests are subject to Good Laboratory Practice guidelines and other Food and Drug Administration laws.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Factsheet – Household Product Testing". Buav.org. February 2004. Archived from the original on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  2. ^ Abbott, A (November 10, 2005). "Animal testing: More than a cosmetic change". Nature 438 (7065): 144–146.  
  3. ^ Select Committee on Animals in Scientific Procedures Report, House of Lords, Chapter 3: The purpose and nature of animal experiments.
  4. ^ "The CRO Market", Association of Clinical Research Organizations.

External links

  • What is aquatic toxicity testing?
  • Genetic and Molecular Toxicology Assays, Safety Assessment, Animal Research Laboratories Agency.


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